Small Business for Beginners - it's always a pile of unanswered questions: what exactly do what the business idea from scratch to be profitable and promising, it is possible to realize without tremendous capital costs and how to calculate allprofitable business ideas?We will try to throw you a business idea from scratch, so to speak, and more specifically, the business idea - production of oyster mushrooms.We will explain in detail how to create a "mushroom farm" what and how much it will take, and even sketch out a rough business plan mini mushroom production.
Many have heard about the possibility of growing mushrooms at home, or even organizing your little (or big) mushroom business, but few have tried to implement these bold plans.Mass literature and online resources talk about the virtues of such an event, but rarely - about the pitfalls and shortcomings.Today we will dedicate you the nuances of mushroom business from a position of experience in growing oyster mushrooms - the most unpretentious and "grateful" mushroom.We will tell you everything you ever wanted to know about the best methods of oyster mushrooms and their cultivation.
• Why oyster?
• Types oyster
• Useful properties oyster
• How to grow oyster mushrooms at home
1. mushrooms after rain, or how to grow oyster mushrooms on stumps?
2. A full bag of oyster, or how to grow oyster mushrooms in the bags?
3. «How much cow gives milk? .." Or oyster yields
• «Pitfalls" mushroom
1. The lower the mosquito bites the harder
2. mold attack
3. Pests and Fungalmushrooms pests
4. Oyster - sissy
• Mushroom Farm - Business Plan
1. penny penny gained
2. No document - no farm
3. How to hang in grams?
4. We reduce the balance
Why the cat sneezes and coughs?It causes coughing and sneezing, and symptoms of disease.Treatment of cough in cats.
• Why oyster?
In comparison with other fungi, whether mushrooms, mushrooms, shiitake, chanterelle, white and other mushrooms, oyster mushrooms have a number of advantages.Take, for example, ease of cultivation and high enough rate of fungal growth, and, of course, good food and taste.
Regarding the diversity of substrate - the basis on which the mushrooms are grown, the oyster has no peers.For its cultivation fit almost anything.You can grow oyster mushrooms on stumps on the sawdust on the ground, in the usual straw, sunflower husk.It is interesting to note that in India, for example, it is grown on paper waste, the Philippines - the shell of coconut.Today, there are manufacturing techniques in which oyster grown even on potato skins and toilet paper!
grow, so to speak, fruit oyster mushrooms quickly and actively.In nature, the wild mushrooms begin to give "fruits", in 2-2.5 months in artificial - after a month and a half.Oyster mushroom fruiting long, in several waves, one it grows bunch weighing 200 gr., And sometimes goes by weight.
Food quality oyster mushrooms are also highly significant.To begin with, it is simply delicious, although, according to some gourmets, and gives white fungus or mushrooms, but that being said, matter of taste.Benefits Oyster is undeniable - in its structure contains all the necessary chemicals to humans and even more.Previously, it was decided on the nutritional properties equate mushrooms to meat and eggs.But recent research scientists showed that the content of proteins and amino acids oyster still closer to the vegetables.
• Types oyster
First, let's understand what are basically types of oyster.In nature, there are seven kinds of it.However, not all types of edible oyster, and only five of the seven: oyster oyster (ordinary) rozhkovidnaya, pulmonary, citric, steppe and foreign analogue - oyster Florida.
| Oyster mushroom , like other species, growing in clusters, clods.In the wild - on stumps and trunks of deciduous trees: ash, klёne, alder, linden, poplar, acacia and others.At mushroom white flesh and a pleasant smell.The cap in the common oyster is smooth, grayish-yellow or brownish color.Her semi-circular form, something similar to the ear, up to 10 cm. Leg in hairy fungus, porous, up to 4 cm thick - up to 2 cm. It grows, as a rule, not in the middle and tapers to the base.The plates, which are descending on the stem, sparse, thick, white, with jumpers in the legs.In the middle belt such kinds of oyster fruit all summer and fall, the mass fruiting is dependent on the temperature and is in August-October. |
| Oyster rozhkovidnaya grows on stumps and trunks of maples, elms large groups.Pulp her thick, dense, white flour with the smell.The size of the mushroom cap from 3 cm to 12 cm. Young shoots - convex, with growth becoming funnel shape.Color is also of an off-white or yellowish, becoming darker with age until brown.Foot fungus have either absent or very short, about 1 cm and a thickness - 1.5-2 cm. The lower plate rare and narrow, white or slightly yellow color.In the wild oyster rozhkovidnoy kinds of fruit from July to August. |
| Oyster citric , on another called limonnoshlyapoy or mushroom ilmak - a Far mushroom.He mainly grows on dead wood or dead wood of all kinds of elm, sometimes poplar and birch.This species is very similar to the oyster rozhkovidnuyu, and differ only in a bright lemon-colored cap and a large number of fruiting bodies - the dispute. |
| Oyster pulmonary suitable for use only in the "youth" aging, it becomes very hard.Fine young mushroom flesh is white, tinged with gray color and a pleasant scent.Oyster mushroom growing on dead hardwood trees.Cap mushroom from the side, convex-shaped prostrate.Leg, if any, short and rising from the side.The plates - frequent, white and thin.Fruiting oyster pulmonary from June to October. |
| Oyster steppe - these kinds of oyster mushrooms grow in the steppe regions.Unlike other species does not grow on trees or stumps, and on dead plant stems umbrella.Pulp her fleshy, white or yellowish.The cap grows to 4-8 cm, the shape she is usually wrong, plano-convex, smooth or slightly scaly to the touch.The color may be grayish-red, or yellow, often white, for which he is the popular name - white mushroom.Leg, young mushrooms narrowed to the base, it is dense and almost central, up to 4 cm, width - 2 cm. Fruiting mushroom in the period from September to October. |
| Oyster Florida - a kind of geographical hybrid oyster mushroom growing in North America.It is not as meaty as a kinsman and is lighter in color cap.Dimensions his cap more overall - from 10 cm to 20 cm, it is funnel-shaped or semi-circular.Leg center or slightly offset to one side, length and thickness - 2.1 cm. When growing oyster Florida ordinary capricious and requires a higher temperature. |
All these kinds of edible oyster mushrooms grow in the wild, for the artificial cultivation of the variety used in hybrids.Breeders 'tirelessly' output and more new strains are less demanding growing conditions, more delicious, the most "prolific" - combines the best nutritional and other qualities.
Depending on the type they are grown on different substrates - on wheat straw, cotton nuts, sunflower husk, corn processing waste.Some are not particularly demanding on the temperature in the room, some - to the light.Some kinds of oyster mushrooms are good for freezing, while others - for conservation.There are many different strains, so choosing a hybrid oyster should carefully consider not only your wishes, but also the conditions that are required for the best of the crop.
• Useful properties oyster
About that, what is the use of oyster are legends, but to talk about them, we will not, because the most interesting are the recommendations of doctors and research biologists.
oyster mushrooms in the growth process can accumulate beta-glucan of the rotting wood, which, according to experts, gives anti-tumor effect, as well as the ability to enhance the immune system - our defense system.
appears bioelements part in oyster increases resistance to the effects of radionuclides, and, moreover, leads them out.We use natural oyster means virtually no contraindications, which has a beneficial effect on the body of people exposed to radiation.
According to the research, scientists have found that the use of oyster mushroom is preventive actions against disease cholecystitis, hepatitis, gastric ulcer, atherosclerosis.The substances contained in them, can deal with viruses, as well as reduce cholesterol and blood sugar.They normalize the pressure in people with hypertension and hypotension.Today, many countries have created and patented anti-cancer drugs based on substances extracted from ordinary mushrooms.
Eating oyster, the person receives a very large complex of vitamins, unequaled in the number with any other food.Use Pleurotus high biotin level is several times greater than the content in eggs, milk and spinach, which makes oyster particularly useful.It is identical in content thiamine oatmeal, beans, cabbage and wheat bread.A composition of lipids in fungi is close to the high-grade vegetable oils.The quality of proteins contained in mushrooms superior meat products.In addition they store a set of mineral salts and trace elements.
According to the nutritionists, oyster mushroom is a low-calorie foods, and it can be used even during a diet.You can cook almost any way: boil, braise, roast and use raw in salads.Distinctive ability oyster is almost complete preservation of useful properties after treatment - their benefits reduced by only 5%!
• How to grow oyster mushrooms at home
As you know, oyster multiplies spores from which to grow the mycelium - a kind of mushroom seedlings.Growing mycelium oyster mushrooms at home - employment troublesome, long and, in fact, hopeless (unless you are going to open their farm mitselevuyu).It is easier to buy oyster mycelium from specialized firms, and it is - a penny.
- mushrooms after rain, or how to grow oyster mushrooms on stumps?
The most simple way to home-grow oyster with minimal costs - is the cultivation of oyster mushrooms on stumps.Oyster mushroom mycelium can sit on stumps of trees in the country, your garden plot or "put" wood logs 30-50 centimeters long in the shaded area of the garden, prikopat ground by two-thirds.For trees oyster is not dangerous, as growing on dead wood exclusively.
way to grow oyster mushrooms on stumps requires little or no effort to drill quite shallow, 3-5 cm holes or depressions in the nadpilit be lazy at a distance of 30 cm from each other.It is possible and even pour mycelium seal in the ground by setting the stump on.If the old logs need to soak and dry them in water for a week.The recess must be prepared to make oyster mushroom mycelium and seal with duct tape, but rather with moss.During the growth of the stumps or logs need to be watered, keeping moisture in the wood.Experienced mushroom pickers for growing oyster mushrooms on stumps or too lazy to advise bring them into the barn or cellar to maintain a constant temperature of 15-20 ° C., and cover with plastic wrap.Within 2-2.5 months, when overgrown mycelium, "plant" logs into the ground.The technology of growing oyster mushrooms at home will allow you to harvest when the temperature drops to 8-14 ° C, that is in September and October.If you make 20 holes, then one will be able to collect logs from 5 to 10 kg.
Of course, this technology is growing oyster mushrooms on stumps is a seasonal way, but in this case the phrase "springing up like mushrooms after the rain 'is very appropriate, because it is absolutely not bothering, you will provide yourself as oyster harvest, how you want.If the cultivation of oyster mushrooms on stumps for you - it's too easy, and you have a desire to have fresh mushrooms on the table, regardless of the weather, or even build your own little mushroom business, you'd better suit other ways how to grow oyster mushrooms at home oncottage or mini-production.
- bag full of oyster, or how to grow oyster mushrooms in the bags?
Grow oyster can be in different containers - pots, boxes, etc.However, the most convenient and, so to speak, a fruitful manner to grow oyster mushroom home with minimal cost is considered to be the cultivation of oyster mushrooms in bags.To do this already require specially prepared substrate and, if you want to grow mushrooms all year round room.
substrate can also be different, but less expensive and the easiest - from the usual straw, crushed to 5-10 cm in length (the maximum you can save by taking for the base of a cane, if you have the ability and desire to stock them).Straw must be emptied into a container, such as a bath or digesting, pour boiling water and carefully wrapped with improvised means, get steamed thoroughly leave for 3-4 hours.This is a very important point, because it is necessary not just to soften, and, above all, to disinfect, "sterilized".It may be a lot of harmful molds, which will ruin your whole crop.After heat treatment, the substrate should be thoroughly overcome by putting the press.When you take a handful and squeeze fist act should only drop if the water flows - not pressed enough.
now prepared substrate can be made of oyster mushroom mycelium.To this mix gently them based - 300-500 g per 10 kg of mycelium substrate.It is important to remember that the temperature of the straw should not exceed 30 ° C, or oyster mushroom mycelium could just die.
firmly lay the weight of plastic bags, leaving them in the air.Screw the top of the bag and tie up to the stop.Bags must be no thicker than 50 cm in diameter, because in the process of overgrowing mycelium will emit large amounts of heat, and the substrate may overheat.Next, do the holes in the bags to 1 cm, retreating, on average, 10 cm each.
packaged bags need to put in a corner in the room where it is possible to maintain the temperature at 24 ° C and humidity - 75-90%.You can control this by acquiring ordinary room thermometer, heat the air in winter and to maintain moisture to water the floor or put in a room filled with liquids.In the light of the next harvest does not need, as in the winding.In this state, the substrate will stay 2-2.5 weeks.Packages will be covered with white bloom, and then start completely overgrown mycelium.
Now you need to place bags and hang them from a distance, providing access of air and room to grow.For a continuous process of growing mushrooms using two rooms with different conditions - separately for the incubation period for fruiting.
Ventilation in this period is very important, if it is impossible to organize it in a natural way, set the fan by giving him a cup of water to retain moisture air.Humidity should not be less than 70% and a temperature of about 15 ° C.The lighting in the fruiting period is also necessary, but not strong, normal stovattnoy lights on in the room of 15-20 m 2
course, on an industrial scale almost the entire process of preparation and cultivation of oyster automated.