Why the baby to be tested?Do the tests of newborns that something goes wrong?Why take the newborn blood count?What tests and what do you need to take the baby?Do they need, and how and when to take the first analyzes of the child?
1. The first analyzes of the child: what, how, why?
2. The first tests at the hospital
3. Analyses in 1 month
4. Analyses of a child under 1 year old and 1 year
- How to collect urine for analysis?
- Analyses kids' pool »
5. Analyses of children qualifying diagnosis
6. Recommendations parents
• The first analysis CHILD: WHAT, HOW, WHY?
integral part of the medical examination is a laboratory diagnosis.Reasons for prescribed tests of children are diverse: clarification of the diagnosis, the collection of information about the general state of health, prevention of infectious diseases in children.
First, prevention is always better than cure it later.Secondly, the treatment of many diseases depends on timely diagnosis.And the reliability of the results of research samples, depends largely on the ability of parents to properly collect the material.So let's find out how and when the baby tests should be carried out as it is right to do?
• The first analysis of the Child in the maternity hospital
first tests take even newborns in the delivery room, literally the first seconds of life.A drop of blood taken from the umbilical cord, doctors determined the blood group of the baby.3-4 birthday blood test at the hospital of the heels, the so-called neonatal screening, which allows to identify such hereditary, congenital diseases, such as hypothyroidism (decrease in the body of the child thyroid function) and phenylketonuria (a metabolic disorder).
blood taken from the baby, placed on a special test form, then guided to the laboratory for analysis.On the results of such an analysis of the child in the hospital are informed only when it detects blood markers of disease within 1 month.
In any case, all the kids who were born to mothers with Rh-negative blood taken at birth, blood from the umbilical cord at the hospital, in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn and other diseases.
Sometimes you have to take a blood test at the hospital of the finger or from a vein, but it if necessary.The reason for that, newborn jaundice.Specialists in this way is determined with great precision, which form of the disease in children.Normal, that is physiological jaundice - a fairly common phenomenon, in general, does not threaten the child.If the newborn jaundice is pronounced, and raises serious concerns among doctors, it is necessary to do analyzes of the child in the hospital, taking blood from a vein.Such assays allow infants to determine the content and form of bilirubin in the blood and to understand how the situation really dangerous.
• ANALYSIS OF THE CHILD 1 month
If tests newborns for hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria made still in the hospital, gave a positive result, after discharge from the hospital you will be informed about the need to pass additional tests, analyzes the child in 1 monthand if necessary, appropriate treatment.As a screening test - it is still tentative analysis that after receiving information about the positive test result, a pediatrician assigns a deeper examination of child suspected of hypothyroidism, including: consultation of the endocrinologist, more research is absolutely all thyroid hormones, X-raythyroid cancer, thyroid ultrasound.
If you suspect the baby for phenylketonuria, after discharge from the hospital to make additional special tests of newborns, which include more accurate methods of identifying and determining the amount of the amino acid phenylalanine and its derivatives.To do this, carry out research, making blood tests and urine tests of the child.
• ANALYSIS OF THE CHILD TO 1 YEAR AND ANALYSIS OF THE CHILD IN 1 YEAR
If the state of health of the baby does not cause any fear nor my mother, nor the doctor who performs the patronage, the following tests newborns appoint only3 months prior to the preventive vaccination, which is taken from a newborn general analysis of blood and urine.
- Why take the newborn blood count?
Similar analyzes of children are needed to control the state of health, not to miss the development of the disease and the contraindications to vaccination.Take newborn blood count of the ring finger.For this extreme phalanx wipe moistened cotton swab in alcohol and make skin puncture disposable lancet.Results of the analysis will assess the level of hemoglobin, white blood cells, red blood cells and other blood factors.
Do not be afraid when you discover that the figures are different from the "norm", which is an indication of the standard form.The fact that the blood of the newborn baby is qualitatively different from the blood of breast baby, and she, in turn, is different from the blood of older kids.
- urinalysis child
General urine child examined by a morning urine collected in a clean, dry bowl with a lid.For the analysis require a minimum amount - 15-25 ml morning urine.Delivery of material research - no longer than 1.5 hours.If a long time to store urine, then decompose forming elements, it is cloudy, and the reaction is changed and therefore, the results are distorted and can not consider them as credible.
necessity of taking this "routine" analysis of the urine of the child of many parents baffled.In particular, parents of young girls.Since gather material thoracic baby who is not familiar yet with the pot, it is not so simple.It is doubly difficult not to miss the first morning urine.
- 1. No need to save for a "tomorrow" collection analyzes, especially to continue in the same spirit, a few more weeks in a row.
- 2. Do not ignore your baby diet 2-3 days before collection tests.
- 3. Do not attempt to "decode" the test results - check them with the figures that are printed in the forms correctly, because each child at different ages their performance.
• How to collect urine for analysis?
- «Squeeze the diaper or diaper»
Unfortunately, the popular way, but it is not suitable.The filler used disposable diapers gel absorbs moisture and thus, even if something overcome succeed, this is what will be a gel or as not a urine for analysis.It is also pointless pressing diaper.Urine, which passed a similar filter, loses some of its properties as a minimum.
- «Pour peas»
option, not the best.If you have an aluminum pot, it at least is necessary before collecting urine baby boil.With plastic pot all the trouble, it does not help to clear even the "toilet duck."The collected urine is so great, even in the washed the pot, shows higher than normal number of white blood cells, and bacterial seeding altogether could plunge into shock.
- «Adapt a jar of baby food, to seize the moment and to substitute»
Better.But it all depends on the skill of parents and tractability crumbs.A jar with a lid must be prepared the night before: wash, pour over boiling water and dry it.Immediately upon awakening, podmoyte baby.The preferred procedure for collecting urine to spend in the bathroom.Stimulate to urinate may even sound of running water from the tap.It is also good to offer the child a drink of clean drinking some water.
- «Use a urine collecting device»
most modern way, has its pros and cons.The urine collecting device - a plastic bag with the tear-shaped aperture and an adhesive to secure it where you want.Do urine bags that immediately after urine collection and can be to stick right in their transport to the laboratory.
Do not forget to wash away the child before sticking to the bag causal place.For greater convenience we recommend to put on top of the diaper.
But most importantly: do not stick the urine collecting device "for the night!"First, the baby during nighttime sleep defecate than once, and the package can get such a mixture, the results of which may result in a referral for hospitalization.While in the hospital will investigate the unfounded suspicions, kids can simply heal from non-existent diseases.Secondly, in the urine collecting device has a drawback - it can come off.In addition, many kids do manage to pull out a bag, which prevents them from.
• Analyses kids' pool »
to visit the children's pool you must take help from pediatricians who provide on the basis of the general condition of the child, the baby of the analysis for helminth eggs and enterobiasis.
Such assays baby held by scraping the study.The procedure does not require special training, it is done in the morning before defecation.To wash the baby before delivery should not be scraping.Lay the baby on the left side with your right leg at the knee and take her up a bit.A small spatula or a special match with a cotton swab dipped in glycerin, make scraping gently "rub" of perianal folds and the lower part of the rectum.The material on enterobiasis, examined under the microscope on the slide, pinworm eggs are normally not found at all.
order to conclude on the absence or presence of helminth eggs (analysis of "ova", as this analysis is called simplified) examined the feces.To pass the tests the baby for a few days before, should avoid taking activated charcoal, laxatives, and iron supplements, do not use rectal suppositories or enemas.
On the day of examination in the morning collect about 2 tablespoons spoons baby feces from three different places of the stool.For transportation we recommend to use special disposable container or a clean, dry glass jar with a wide mouth.Delivery time analysis of the child in the lab, it is desirable to be minimal.However, it allowed to collect the feces in the evening (but no more than 8 hours before delivery to the laboratory) and store it in the refrigerator overnight.
• ANALYSES OF CHILDREN specify the diagnosis
- Biochemistry blood
To perform blood chemistry child under 1 year take blood from a vein, elbow or head located on the baby.Assign research may specialist doctors or therapists.Carry out analysis to assess the performance of internal organs and detect a disease in its early stages.
By biochemical studies should be carefully prepared, and not only the baby, but mom.Analysis of the rent on an empty stomach, but many infants do not eat for 8-12 hours just can not do.In this connection, the smallest need not to breast, at least 3 hours before the scheduled visit to the clinic.Sometimes laboratories require children drink some water to the venous blood has become more liquid.
Regarding the preparation of mother - it purely psychological.She may be allowed to attend, but can not solve.It is worth finding out in advance in the clinic - it's internal rules.My mother, who will be present, no harm will be reserved valeryanochkoy.To be able to get in a wreath on a thin little arms and head crumbs, even an experienced nurse from the first time he can.
to calm the baby, feed and pet him immediately after the procedure.Kids fairly quickly forget grudges when Mom beside them.
Feces on dysbacteriosis intestine for microbiological studies are collected in a sterile container, closes tight lid (for example, in a glass jar, sterilized and dried).Spatula overlaying material must also be sterile.Toddler must be undercut, and somehow persuaded to pee, to no urine, or discharge from the genitals of the crumbs do not fall into the container.Flakes, mucus or pus which may be present in the stool on the contrary, is required to include in the sample.
most accurate analysis results children - carried out on the material delivered for 2 hours in a laboratory.In extreme cases, the materials may be stored in a refrigerator, but not for longer than 4 hours prior to the study.
- Analyses baby occult blood
Such a sample is carried out in cases of suspected bleeding in the baby of a GI.It is going in the same material as a "worm eggs."But the preparation is different.3 days "before" tests should be excluded from the food: meat, fish, liver, and any foods that contain iron (including apples, bell peppers, white beans, green onions, spinach), and vegetables, which are stained feces (For example, a beet).It should give up the tooth cleaning, since even the most minor bleeding of the gums may skew the results, making them unreliable.
with suspected infectious diseases, as well as pharyngitis and tonsillitis conduct tests on swabs from the nose, throat, nose and throat.Collect smears produce an empty stomach, drink, rinse your mouth with water or brush your teeth before the procedure can not be.It is painless for babies, but it is extremely unpleasant.We need to open your mouth wide, especially when taking a child from nasopharyngeal swab.
With older kids you can negotiate, asking to wait.But little children have to hold fast to the force, not to twitch.Because they can hurt yourself, or push your hands a nurse, and if the swab touches the accident or mucous tongue swab have to do it again, and so long as it does not turn.
- Urine child Nechiporenko
Urine child Nechiporenko performed in detecting abnormalities in the results of a clinical test.It is necessary to determine the content of red blood cells and white blood cells to diagnose inflammation of the urinary tract: pyelonephritis, cystitis, hematuria, and other hidden.
Urine child Nechiporenko spend on morning urine.Before collecting the analysis carefully podmoyte genitals of the child and prepare a sterile container.Going to have "average" portion of urine that is collected only urine, which is in the middle of urination, and the start and end of urination passed.
• ADVICE TO PARENTS
Before any analysis of the baby's need:
- 1. consult with a doctor about the rules of collecting material and its delivery to the laboratory;
- 2. strictly observe the requirements on nutrition and diet, if any, before taking the tests;
- 3. stop taking antibiotics no later than 14 days prior to sampling or to warn a pediatrician and laboratory personnel about their decision (however, should prevent any medication taken);
- 4. prepare a container in which to collect the material (in studies of feces or urine) sterile container, clean jar with a lid or plastic wrap;
- 5. refrain from ultrasound and X-ray the child immediately before the tests, as well as any physiotherapy.
little more about what tests you need to take the child, and why: