Parents have a different perception problem of language development in their children.Some - the alarmists are beginning to sound the alarm when a two year old child does not communicate deployed phrases, are sensitive to the stories of others that their baby already knows and a lot of poetry by heart, not something that phrase.Others - carefree, hard not to notice the outspoken delays in the development of the child, "that's okay", "it is still small," - they soothe themselves, and only after the medical diagnosis begin to somehow solve the problem.So what is it - a delay of speech development, as it happens, how to recognize deviations from the norm, and most importantly, how to fix it?
1. When the baby should start to talk?
2. Delay or individual features of the development?
3. Delayed speech or psycho-speech development?
4. The causes of variances
5. What to do in case of delay in speech development?
6. At what age should begin treatment?
7. Treatment delays in speech development and psycho-speech development
8. Methods of correction delay speech development
When the baby should start to talk?
At the age of 1 years old child should benefit, at least, 10 words lightweight and know and understand the name 200 items (mom, dad, a teddy bear, a circle, walking and other daily activities and items).The kid has to understand what he is told, and react accordingly.The question "where Dad?" - To turn her head toward him, and the phrase "give a hand" to respond accordingly and to lend a hand, or at least hide it, showing disobedience.
In 2 years child should build short monosyllabic proposals have I, using adjectives and pronouns.At this age, your vocabulary should grow as least 50 words - this is the lower limit, experts generally expect no less than 100 words.
In 2,5 years child with normal speech development begins to build complex sentences, using the words of the order 200-300 , able to put simple questions "what", "where?" And says the majority of the letters correctly, exceptions are"p", "l" and hissing vowels.The kid should know, his name, to distinguish between native and be able to distinguish the voices of animals and copy .In this age of expanding vocabulary and more complex understanding of adjectives, such as delicious, beautiful, big, fun, high, etc.
in 3-year age child's speech should be combined into meaningful proposals to correctly use pronouns , often use adjectives and adverbs (hot, early away, etc.).To determine whether the child has abnormalities, delayed speech development is not difficult in this age.Observe and better ask someone impartially observe the child's communication with a stranger.It should not be grammatically correct speech, but if the person understands, though 75% said the Kid, and between the folds on the dialogue, then all is well, it is developing within normal limits.It is important that your pipsqueak could change with fishing in a speech on the numbers and leave. For example, if a 3-year-old to the question "will the candy?" The kid replies, "will" instead of "shall" - this is a deviation, a serious reason to attend to its development.
delay or individual features of the development?
To begin with especially impressionable reassure parents and grandparents.Limit of normal speech development is very flexible, it is not necessary to examine the crumbs, as soon as she tapped one year, and to sound the alarm that in the range of vocabulary is not 10, and 8 words.Variations of plus or minus 2-3 months - this is normal, as the fact that boys lag behind girls are in development for 4-5 months.
Argued that there is a certain area of the brain that is responsible for the development of speech.However, this is misleading, and in fact, it is formed exclusively in the normal and harmonious development of both hemispheres of the brain.Work must be fully and right brain responsible for emotional sphere-shaped, intuition and spatial thinking and the left brain responsible for rational and logical thinking, and communication between them.The nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres, the boys initially thinner and develop more slowly than girls.It happens that between the hemispheres is hindered information sharing, while boys are difficult to clothe his thought in grammatically correct form.At an early stage backlog in speech development, in the absence of brain and mental disorders specialist can easily help the boy to overcome the difficulties.Another reason not to panic, is that statistically it is men who are endowed with the most advanced figurative speech, it is among them an order of magnitude greater writers and poets.Some doctors tend to explain this more prolonged and active work of the right hemisphere of the brain, in the development process and the formation of connections between them.
This situation can not be run, and if the boy does not speak for a long time or can not express their thoughts, be sure to seek professional help.Unfortunately, among boys rather high percentage deviations both in speech development, and in psychoverbal.Boys children with stuttering twice as much as girls.Almost absolute absence of speech at normal hearing (alalia) is three times higher than in boys.And three times more of their children suffering from dysarthria (difficulty pronouncing the majority of sounds and unintelligible speech promiscuity).
Nor should withdraw from the accounts of a typical children's mangling of words, semantic cuts figurative mark.All this is also the word and "bi-Bika" instead of "machine" and "meow-myayu" instead of a cat, and "bye-bye" instead of sleeping.Up to 2.5 years of use of "slang Malyshkova" acceptable.In addition, the child may come up with their own names of objects, and should not run to the doctor if the baby stubbornly says "zekataya" on the mirror, or "Kamani" on the pasta - it's just a word.It's okay when the baby uses the same combination of sounds to denote different subjects ("ki" - throw the pussy).However, in 2.5, the child must try to talk phrases, using no less than 3-4 words, for example, something like "Mama Deux bye-bye" (my mother go to bed).
The fact that the child has speech delay by the following signs:
- 1. When a 4-month old baby shows no emotional responses in relation to what is happening.Not smiling parents, does not respond to their gestures, not animated at the sight or is accessed mother.
- 2. When, in 8-9 months, the child is not "babble", does not produce repetitive sounds (pa-pa-ta, ba-ba-ba, etc.), And a year gives the impression of a rare demure, publishing little sounds.
- 3. When the 1.5-year-old child has problems with chewing or sucking.For example, a slice of apple choking, unable to chew it.
- 4. When the 1.5 year baby does not say simple words like "mama", "nurse", "give", does not understand his own name, the names of common objects.If the child is not able to fulfill simple requests, does not understand what was wanted of him, such as "sit," "give a hand", "Come here."
- 5. When a 2-year old baby is not trying to learn new words, and continues to use a few simple individual words.
- 6. When the 2.5 years of actively used vocabulary words and slovopodrazhany less than 20. Do not know the names of body parts and familiar objects.Perform screening test: ask to see parts of the body, to bring him a familiar object, which is in the next room.If there is a two-word phrases, such as "give Ada" ("give me water»)
- 7. When a 3-year-old child's speech is not so picky that even relatives understand it with difficulty.Do not say elementary propositions consisting of two or three phrases, understands explanations simple stories.
- 8. When a child is 3 years old, "rumbles" - says too quickly, swallowing the endings of words, or, conversely, very slowly, drawing out the words, though no one at home does not talk this way.
- 9. When a 3-year kid does not build its own proposals, and speaks phrases from books and movies.If the child is a mirror of the second phrase, which hears from adults, even if it is out of place.In this case, an urgent need to contact a specialist, and always be examined by a psychiatrist - this may be a sign of very great variations in development.
- 10. When a child regardless of the age are constantly walking around with his mouth ajar when no apparent reason for raising salivate, but it is not associated with an increase in clove.
delay speech or psycho-speech development?
There is a significant difference between the delayed development of speech directly to the child or his psyche.Delayed speech development (ADB. - Spp) means that we are only suffering, and emotional and mental development takes place normally.When a child understands and correctly executes the request, but said bad, little or no rejects.The lag in the development of psycho-speech (the ADB. - ZPRR) means mental, obscheintellektualnuyu delay.
to 4 years ZPRR diagnosis is rare, and is placed in exceptional cases, when serious diseases.However, over 5 years, 80% of problems with speech delay is explained by the psycho-speech development.Child Psychology is designed so that up to 4 years old kid develops world, it takes a little communication connection and examines trying, trying.But after 4 primary source of information for him becomes a communication with peers and adults.When it is not mastered by them, not easily accessible, and the process of inhibition of mental development, and by 5 years in delay of speech development, it turns into a psycho-speech delay.These and mental health of the child directly linked, without speech tool can not fully take shape cognitive processes and emotional and volitional.If you do not improve the situation in 5 years of age, at the best of your crumbs expects specialized school.If you have these problems urgently need child care and employment with defectology.
Sometimes a delay of speech development is the reason for the backlog of psychomotor development.The kid is much later than the other kids start to hold the head, sitting, etc.They are often awkward, clumsy, poorly are often falling, hits the objects.If your pipsqueak constantly bruised there is reason to attend.Another characteristic feature - the child is very difficult to potty train if in 4.5 years it has had "an occasion" - go to the doctor.
causes of variances
Variations in question is not a disease in itself, is a consequence of disease and very serious.It can be brain damage, central nervous system (CNS) , often causes are genetic or psychiatric disorders .
Long-term observations show that such deviations can be caused by problems fetal development, premature birth , and other non-standard generic situation: rapid or prolonged labor, birth asphyxia, birth injuries.Among other things, the cause may be hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure, mental illness, genetic predisposition, and even early weaning, transfer to artificial feeding.
In the first three years of the presence of severe childhood diseases occurring, injury due to frequent falls, especially cranial, hearing loss - all of which can be the impetus for the development of gaps in the development of speech.A big contribution to make and conditions in which the child grows , both biological and social.Adverse effects of damaging the areas of the brain development of which the most intense at a given time.Studies show that ZPRR spp and children suffer alcoholic parents, mental disorders in families with frequent conflicts.
Such gaps are characteristic of the syndrome of hyperactivity children with autism, cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome.
Regardless of the initial reasons that led to brain damage, the result of the same - some of its areas are beginning to work properly or is inactive.It is easy to understand that children with delayed speech development of psycho-damaged areas responsible for speech, intellectual and mental abilities.However - it is still not a sentence, and in many cases, timely treatment can help fix it.
Themselves negative social factors pathologically not affect the baby, but affect the mental development, child psychology suffers.So often the problem with the development of speech are among twins and twins, children who grow up in poor language environment, or simply in bilingual families.
hereditary factor , of course, plays a significant role.Unfortunately, a very common phenomenon, when up to 5 years mother did not suddenly remember the absence of speech in the child, justifying his action with stories of relatives who in childhood was a long silence, and in the 4 years of talking, and just phrases and sentences, and increased normal people.Most illogical calm instilled a senior in the family, film also makes a contribution.However - this irresponsible attitude can lead to irreparable consequences.
Remember, if in the family there were similar delays in speech development, so the child already has a genetic predisposition - it is an occasion not just concerned, and particularly to take a proactive stance.Such rejection progresses from one generation to another, and each time gets more severe, like a snowball.It should be understood that the competent speech patterns and vocabulary accustom children aged 2-3 years, and ends the process as early as 7 years.
If a 6-year-old child does not talk, does not imitate people or animals, the likelihood that he would ever speak, is only 0.2%!If this does not happen to 8 years old, your child, and you, too, happen to develop alternative methods of communication - a card, written, gestural, but talk in a general sense, he can not ever!
What to do in case of delay in speech development?
Many parents mistakenly believe that this problem "treat" speech therapists, but they are teachers, not doctors.Speech therapists can only learn to correctly pronounce sounds and to utter words, but to do this effectively only 4-5 years.But you already knew that waiting until 5 years of extremely dangerous.
To start, you need to thoroughly examine the child and identify the causes of speech pathology.
- 1. Visit an audiologist, hearing the baby vote.
- 2. Go through age-appropriate child tests to assess its development: the Denver test, designed to assess psychomotor development;scale speech development at an early age;Bailey scale, evaluate the development of infants.
- 3. After talking with my parents and watch the baby, the doctor must find out how the child tells others about your needs.The fact that the hearing loss, the primary neurogenic speech disorders, motor apraxia facial muscles are attached children to express their needs in some other way (for example, to point the finger at the mouth and pronouncing some sounds, he is trying to say "I want to eat"or bringing your mom shoes, called her a walk).This does not occur with the total delay of progression or autism.
- 4. exclude the possibility of motor apraxia facial muscles, trying to find out whether there are difficulties in feeding and whether the baby is able to follow the movement of the tongue.
- 5. There are methods of comparison and understanding of the child's speech playback.
- 6. confirm or exclude the lack of stimulation of speech development, assessing the child's home environment and the opportunities for communication.
To diagnose the causes need to see a neurologist, speech therapist, and when necessary, to child psychologists and psychiatrists.Certainly you may need to pass special tests of the brain - MRI, ECG, ECHO-EG and others.
almost 100% of cases ZPRR spp and requires medication.