Colposcopy of the cervix: who, why and how to do a colposcopy

colposcopy cervix

colposcopy - a procedure for pelvic examination of the vagina, cervix and vulva.Perform this procedure using a special device - a colposcope.The main indications for colposcopy - a deviation from the normal Pap test (cytology smear, Pap test - the same thing).If during colposcopy detected unusual, suspicious of education, then the doctor can immediately conduct a biopsy, taking a little abnormal cells for further detailed laboratory analysis.

Many women experience anxiety and fear before the colposcopy to carry it out.Often this is due to lack of awareness of the essence of the procedure, that is a colposcopy of the cervix, what is needed and how it is made.Also portrayed in the myths that colposcopy - it hurts, but in reality even a biopsy of the cervix is ​​considered painless, although sometimes causes a feeling of pressure, slightly spasmodic pain.Nevertheless, in some cases, one and the other procedure is indispensable.


1. Why do colposcopy?
2. Indications for research
3. Contraindications
4. Colposcopy during pregnancy
5. What is a colposcope and how does it work?
6. It hurts, it's dangerous?
7. Preparing for the
8. How do colposcopy
9. What is seen during colposcopy?
10. After the procedure




• Why do colposcopy?

Indications for colposcopy

This study sets used in the diagnosis of diseases affecting women, including the following:

  • - genital warts;
  • - Cervical erosion;
  • - Cervicitis - inflammation of the uterine cervix;
  • - Abnormalities of the uterine cervical precancerous tissue;
  • - Cervical Cancer;
  • - Precancerous changes of the vulva;
  • - Cancer of the vulva;
  • - Anomalies precancerous vaginal tissues;
  • - cancer of the vagina;
  • - etc.


• Indications for colposcopy procedure

colposcopy - a study of the state of the pelvic examination of the cervix and vaginal mucosa all conducted using a colposcope, which allows detailed study of tissue.

Indications for colposcopy - is the need to analyze and evaluate the state of the mucous membrane of the vaginal and cervical cancer, diagnose diseases, to confirm the diagnosis.Actually the main purpose of the procedure - is the detection of abnormal, suspicious tissue, and most importantly, it helps to distinguish benign from malignant tumors (cancer).In addition, the indications for colposcopy - is controlling the effectiveness of the treatment.


• Contraindications for colposcopy

colposcopy during pregnancy

Actually contraindications for colposcopy, given the simplicity and absolute safety studies are lacking.There is only a single time limit by which the time of inspection colposcope should end in menstrual bleeding - during menstruation procedure is not carried out.Even pregnancy is not a contraindication.


• Colposcopy during pregnancy

Colposcopy for pregnant women - are absolutely safe procedure, however, about the pregnancy the doctor in any case it is necessary to perform the procedure to notify.But in need of treatment appropriate measures lay up to birth (except for cases when tumors seriously threaten women's health and require immediate medical intervention).Colposcopy during pregnancy does not threaten the health of the child at birth, as well as the ability to conceive a child in the future, does not affect.

has no cause that can bring the discharge procedure in the activities of dangerous during pregnancy.Actually safe for a pregnant woman, even a biopsy, which often resorted to during or after colposcopy in the presence of suspected abnormalities in the tissues and the mucosa (although biopsy in such cases can cause quite severe vaginal bleeding).Treatment after colposcopy is usually delayed until birth because of the risk of bleeding, especially if the period of more than ten weeks of pregnancy.

colposcopy during pregnancy is to avoid the risk of cervical cancer (cancer).Pregnancy may alter the cervical mucous (more pronounced is cervical dysplasia, examination may impede an increase in the cervical canal mucus), so the procedure must be carried out exclusively colposcopy qualified gynecologist.

In most cases, a biopsy of the following traditional colposcopy during pregnancy is not recommended.The reason for this is the increased vascularization of the uterine cervix and increase the risk of excessive bleeding during pregnancy.But if colposcopy to detect the presence of potentially dangerous growths or cervical dysplasia of the third degree, then a biopsy should be done, regardless of the risks to the pregnancy.Fence tissue samples for analysis from the cervical canal is contraindicated because of the potential damage to the fetus.


• What is a colposcope and how does it work?

how do colposcopy

colposcope - a special device consisting of an optical microscope and lighting systems adapted to study non-contact method.Colposcope contains binocular optical head, the base unit and a tripod that allows you to install and use the device in a convenient position for the doctor.The optical head includes a prismatic binoculars, which is equipped with interchangeable eyepieces to increase, allowing a distance of 195 mm examine tissue in the smallest details.The head is integrated illuminator that creates uniform lighting intense study physician surface.

very same procedure for colposcopy of the cervix, can be simple and extended.The procedure includes only a simple inspection of the mucous membrane of the cervix, after preliminary cleansing the surface of all that separates.

Regarding the extended colposcopy, it is viewed from the vaginal part of the cervix after the special reagent processing, namely 3% solution of acetic acid.This treatment allows us to see more clearly pathological changes in the tissue, because the layers of mucous membranes swell briefly, in the treated area is a reduction of the blood vessels, reducing blood supply to the tissues.To identify cells in tissue glycogen test surface pretreated with another agent - aqueous solution of Lugol (in medicine it is called Schiller).

epithelial cells in the case of precancerous conditions are poor in the glycogen and, hence, do not stain with Lugol's iodine solution, the abnormal tissue in this case has the form of whitish spots on a dark brown background healthy tissue of the vagina or cervix, which is a normal reaction to the solution.As mentioned earlier, during the colposcopy the doctor may take (pinch off) piece of tissue for further detailed laboratory study - biopsy.


• Colposcopy - it hurts, it's dangerous?

As you probably already realized, the procedure is safe and painless - it does not hurt and is not dangerous.During the extended colposcopy may feel a slight burning sensation on contact with acidic reagents.Nevertheless, even in extremely rare cases, but nevertheless, as a result of colposcopy complications may occur, such as:

  • 1. Heavy bleeding;
  • 2. Pain in the lower abdomen;
  • 3. Infection.

If in the next few days after the procedure, there are symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, more abundant than usual (if the bleeding or spotting small and lasts for 2-3 days after the procedure - this is normal), chills, feverand severe pain in the lower abdomen, need urgent medical care.Therefore, consult your doctor as soon as possible!


• Preparing for the

colposcopy cervix

In anticipation of colposcopy physician must recommend you observe the following conditions:

  • 1. Within one or two days before the procedure to abstain from sex.
  • 2. A couple of days before the survey did not use tampons, not light candles, do not do vaginal baths, etc.- Internal flora should remain natural.
  • 3. At high sensitivity women allowed to take any non-prescription analgesic, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen tablet immediately before the procedure.

date of the study taking into account the need to choose a woman's menstrual cycle, so it did not coincide with menstruation.


• How do colposcopy

As a rule, the entire procedure takes 10-20 minutes time.The woman in this case lies in the gynecological chair, in fact, as in the normal gynecological examination.

How do colposcopy?The gynecologist inserts a speculum into the vagina.Metal frame mirror can give some discomfort, simply because it is cold, but normally very painful and uncomfortable it should not be.Then, the doctor has a colposcope just outside the gynecological chair, at a distance of a few centimeters.The device will enable the physician to review the cervix, vagina, vulva magnified until cell.

To detect pathological changes in tissues, the physician can cause the cervix Lugol (aqueous iodine solution) and a solution of vinegar.Easy, but quickly passing a burning sensation caused by contact with the vinegar.Lugol solution does not cause any sensations at all.But the healthy, normal tissue cells in contact with it are changing color, becoming dark brown, but the pathologically altered cells remain unchanged.Thus, they are easier to detect, and the result is more reliable studies.

If you find abnormal areas doctor can immediately conduct a biopsy, taking a small tissue sample for analysis - one way or another, but to do it in the presence of pathology have anyway, so it at once.A biopsy of the cervix - the procedure is painless due to its lack of nerve endings, but slightly spasmodic, or pressing pain in the lower abdomen, it can sometimes trigger.As for the bottom of the biopsy of the vulva and vagina, it can be painful, so before use local anesthesia, causing a means to study the tissue site.In some special cases, use hemostatics to reduce bleeding after collection of the tissue sample.By the way, this method can be scraping the fence, separating scalpel, and perhaps excision of tissue radiowave wire loop.Looks forward to receiving the results of a biopsy of the cervix can be 10-14 days.With regard to the reliability of the analysis, it is very high, namely 98.6%.After 4-6 weeks after the biopsy should go to a reception at the antenatal clinic.


• What is seen during colposcopy?

colposcopy procedure

study using a colposcope can detect even very small, the initial changes and accurately determine the location and nature of the disease.During the inspection, assess the appearance and structure of the mucous membrane: violation of the integrity of the epithelium, color fabrics, vascular pattern, shape and the presence of the glands, the boundaries of identified entities.The mucous membrane in the state standards has a shiny, pale pink, in the second part of the menstrual cycle in her slightly bluish hue.Upon contact with a solution of Lugol its surface is uniformly painted in a dark brown color, and against this background that any anomalies are clearly visible tissue.

EROSION IN (cervical erosion - deprived of land near the vaginal epithelium) erosion surface smooth or fine-grained, red, in the form of loops visible blood vessels on the erosive surface.

AT pseudo (ectopia) cervical epithelium (normally stratified squamous) is replaced by columnar epithelium, having a smooth sharp contours.On colposcopy it has the form of bright red clusters of small papillae.

glandular polyps can be different sizes, single and multiple.When considering the different shiny surface and have shade from pale pink to bluish-purple.Furthermore, the surface of glandular polyps often looks like a cylindrical epithelium, and colposcopy is like ectopia (pseudo).

papilloma - proliferation of pink, with advanced vessels in the individual buds.When it is applied to a 3% solution of acetic vessels are reduced, and the mucous membrane in the area of ​​pathology pales.

endometriosis of cervix uteri (when the cervix is ​​formed tissue similar to the tissue of the mucous membranes of the body of the uterus, where they are subjected to an appropriate education "royal" changes during the menstrual cycle) differs irregular ovoid shape formations having a pink or bluish-purple color.They act on the overall surface of the mucosa and bleed, if they touch.Dimensions formations often change, depending on the particular phase of the menstrual cycle of women.During the extended colposcopy color endometriosis it is almost unchanged, which is important for diagnosis.

leukoplakia CERVICAL is a seal of the mucous membrane in the absence of treatment of leukoplakia may develop into a tumor.On colposcopy looks whitish rough spots or thin films, which are easily separated from the mucous membrane.

CERVICAL CANCER to colposcopy different swollen glassy areas with hilly ridges, they are visible vessels.Moreover, they do not react do not taper at vasoconstrictive action of reagents (e.g., acetic acid) for an extended study.In such cases, a biopsy to make sure.


• After colposcopy

When not in the process of colposcopy biopsy, the activity of the women after the procedure is limited in any way.A day or two after the study may be a slight smearing bleeding, but this is quite rare.However, if the situation is different and you are faced with some complications - urgently to the antenatal clinic!

As for the biopsy, the pain after it, as a rule, take place after one or two days, easy bleeding may persist for up to several days.The presence of excessive bleeding is a cause for immediate treatment to the doctor, especially accompanied by pain, temperature and other variations in health.In the case of unusual dark discharge after a biopsy is not necessary to worry - some women it happens.Within a week after the procedure, it is recommended not to have sex, do not use tampons, and avoid douching.


And a little more about colposcopy and biopsy, video: