How to calculate what is now the gestational age - the possible ways
How to calculate what is now the term of pregnancy - this issue is best to ask a gynecologist.It can determine the duration of pregnancy in several ways: by date of last menstrual period, the results of gynecological examination Gynecological examination: an important component of women's health , by ultrasound.
By date of last menstrual period
By date of last menstrual period is calculated so-called maternity pregnancy calendar.To add the date of last menstrual period of 40 weeks.This is taken as a starting point the first day of the last menstrual period of women.Conception to this day it is impossible, because the egg in the ovary only beginning to ripen.Therefore obstetric gestational age is greater than that calculated by the woman.
Pregnancy in the obstetric calendar is divided into weeks, months and trimesters.
Week - is 7 days, 4 weeks or a month of 28 days, the entire pregnancy lasts 40 weeks or 10 obstetric months.Since in different periods of pregnancy there are different problems, all pregnancy divided into three sections or trimesters: the first 12 weeks (I trimester), 13-24 weeks (II trimester), 25-40 weeks (III trimester).
Full oocyte maturation occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle.Mature egg follicle bursts, it was in, and released from the ovary (this point is called ovulation).The egg enters the fallopian tube, where during the day can be fertilized by sperm.Therefore, a more accurate method of determining gestational age - by date of ovulation.This so-called fetal period, which occurs later midwifery.The difference between these terms is about two weeks, but may be larger or smaller, depending on the length of the menstrual cycle.For example, if the menstrual cycle is 28 days, ovulation occurs on day 14-15.
In order to make a correct calculation, you need to be able to recognize the time of ovulation Ovulation - how to determine as accurately as possible? .In some women, ovulation pain accompanied by transient lower abdomen with one hand.But most ovulation does not manifest itself.In this case, the measurement of basal body temperature will basal temperature - try to move less .This is the temperature in the rectum, which is measured daily in the morning before the woman get up from bed.Nonpregnant women basal temperature rises the day of ovulation and lasts during the second half of the menstrual cycle, dropping two days before the onset of menstruation.
if conception occurred Conception, ovarian cycle, fertilization and genetics baby , basal temperature is not reduced, and sometimes even increases.If a woman is a monthly schedule of basal temperature, it can immediately notice the pregnancy.
Date fetal movements
first fetal movements in nulliparous women is observed in about 20 weeks, multiparous - 16-18.This indicator is very difficult to assess the woman sometimes for fetal movements can take peristalsis.Similarly determine whether fetal movements can only physician during examinations of women.
How is the period of pregnancy during gynecological examination
of pregnancy two weeks already there are objective signs of pregnancy: the vaginal walls and surface of the cervix instead of pink acquire bluish tint, and the cervix becomes softer.But gestational age in time to survey the gynecologist can detect only 5 weeks: the queen of the pear becomes circular and increases in volume.At 8 weeks of pregnancy uterine size is approximately the size of a fist woman, 12 weeks - the average size of a fist, men and its bottom (top edge) is at the level of the pubis.
After 13 weeks of the uterus can be felt already, palpating the abdomen.Gestational age is determined by the height of standing uterus above the pubis towards the navel and the lower end of the sternum:
- 16 weeks - the bottom of the uterus is in the middle between the navel and the pubis or 6 cm above the pubis;
- 20 weeks - at the level of the umbilicus or 20 cm above the pubis;
- 28 weeks - 25 cm above the pubis or 5cm above the navel;
- 32 weeks - in the middle of the distance between the navel and the lower end of the sternum or 30 cm above the pubis;
- 36 weeks - at the level of the xiphoid process or 35 cm above the pubis;
- 40 weeks - the bottom of the uterus drops down to 5 cm and is located midway between the navel and the lower end of the sternum.
How is the period of pregnancy by ultrasound
To calculate the duration of pregnancy and monitor its state and condition of the fetus in all antenatal use ultrasonography (US).With this method you can determine the degree of maturity of the fruit.The main indicator in the I trimester of pregnancy is the distance between the coccyx and the nape of the fetus (coccyx-rump length), in the II and III trimester - the diameter of the head, the length of the femur and the diameter of the stomach.
There is now quite reliable ways to calculate what is now the term of pregnancy.