Gestational diabetes during pregnancy: the more dangerous "sweet" burden?
When talking about diabetes, they usually involve two of its most common form - diabetes type I and II.And few know that there is another kind of the disease, which is diagnosed in pregnant women.According to statistics, gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes: identify and treat pregnancy occurs in 2% of women.Why is there this pathology, and how dangerous it is for a future baby?
What kind of disease?
Gestational diabetes - metabolic glucose that develops in women during childbearing.In most cases, the disease occurs in a latent form and is detected only when the delivery of the analysis of blood sugar.
According to current WHO standards, this analysis shall twice - in setting a woman on account of and at 20-24 weeks of gestation.Taking blood from a vein on an empty stomach makes.Normal glucose expectant mothers should be less 5.1 mmoles / liter.If this figure is higher reappointed study, but with a load.The patient was offered to take 75 grams of glucose, or drink a glass of sweet syrup, and then measure the concentration of carbohydrate in the blood within an hour and two hours after the test.Normally, the results should not exceed 10, and 8.5 mmol / l, respectively.Otherwise, the diagnosis is "gestational diabetes."
the overwhelming number of patients the disease goes away after the baby is born.However, this does not mean that it is not necessary to treat.High levels of glucose in the first place is dangerous for a growing baby.Sugar can cause defects in his respiratory, nervous and cardiac systems.A dangerous complication is the increase in the size of the fetus, which threatens women find it difficult childbirth.
development of the disease is caused by physiological changes in the body of a pregnant.During the period of gestation increases the production of progesterone, which inhibits the action of insulin.As a result, blood sugar levels blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health increases.To cope with this situation, the pancreas is forced to work with a vengeance.If the internal "reserves" is not enough, there is a deficiency of insulin and, as a consequence, diabetes mellitus - threatening and incurable disease .
increase the risk of developing pathology:
- if overweight,
- if there are blood relatives suffering from "normal» (I or type II) diabetes,
- when burdened obstetric history (polyhydramnios, the birth of a large baby in the past,habitual miscarriage),
- over the age of 30 years.
How is it treated?
main treatment - diet.Nutrition for gestational diabetes pregnant women should be completely balanced, but it is required to comply with a number of limitations:
- energy value of the daily ration must not exceed 2000-3000 calories (compared to obesity - no more than 2000 calories).Exact figures are calculated by the doctor individually.
- number of carbohydrates consumed per day should be 200-250 grams.
- daily amount of fat is calculated based on the weight of the body - 60-70 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight.
- daily amount of protein is determined by the formula: 1-2 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight.
- eat better more often (4-6 times a day), but in small portions.Thus patients should always monitor their weight.During the whole period of pregnancy a woman should not gain more than 12 kg.
completely excluded from the diet of food containing digestible carbohydrates:
- sugary drinks,
- candy, cakes, pastries, jellies,
- grapes, dates,
- semolina and rice porridge.
These products are quickly processed in the intestines, leading to a rapid increase in blood sugar levels.
also should limit consumption of high fatty foods that can worsen during the illness.Do not lean on fatty fish, duck, goose, sausages, smoked meats, salted cheese, cream.
recommended for use:
- vegetables (including potatoes),
- fruits and berries,
- wholemeal bread,
- lean meat,
- buckwheat, oat,millet porridge,
- of dairy products - milk, kefir, sour milk, yogurt and cottage cheese with low fat content.
sweeteners during gestation is better not to take.Most of them have a negative impact on the fetus.The only exception is fructose.
Sample menu gestational diabetes during pregnancy
Scrambled eggs of 3 eggs, whole wheat roll, cup of tea (without sugar).
sandwich of brown bread with cheese, a drink from the hips (without sugar), apple.
vegetable salad, bean soup, beef stew with buckwheat, rye bread, tea.
Cottage cheese (you can with milk), orange.
Boiled chicken with steamed vegetables, tomato juice.
glass of kefir.
diet gestational diabetes during pregnancy is important, but not the only method of treatment.No less useful doctors believe exercise and walking.Walking patients is recommended every day for at least 30-40 minutes.
to monitor the health status of women is necessary on a daily basis to measure blood sugar.This is done at least seven times a day: before meals, one hour after meals and at bedtime.
If the measures do not bring the desired result, and the glucose level remains high, doctors prescribe insulin.The doses of the hormone, the number of injections and the time of selected individually.
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy and delivery
How will the patient to give birth - naturally or with the use of cesarean section - the gynecologist decides in the last trimester of gestation.Taking into account obstetrical history, the state of the pregnant woman and the baby.A cesarean section may be necessary for women in the presence of complications such as pelvic diligence, fetal hypoxia fetal hypoxia - the consequences of lack of oxygen in the body , as well as the weight of the fetus more than four kilograms.
After birth, blood sugar levels tend to normalize.But even within two months women are advised to stick to the diet.In rare cases, gestational diabetes can flow into the "normal".In this case, diet therapy is appointed for life.If necessary complement its hypoglycemic drugs.
According to research doctors, gestational diabetes increases the risk of obesity and type II diabetes in the future.Therefore, all patients who have had this pathology, doctors recommend blood tests for sugar 2-3 times a year and constantly monitor their weight.