Cerebral ischemia in newborns: what affects the nerve cells?
Physicians state: cerebral ischemia Cerebral ischemia - a real threat to human life in newborns is diagnosed more often.According to statistics, today, this ailment is exposed every twentieth kid.Why are there irregularities in the brain, and how to fight them?
When not enough oxygen
Cerebral ischemia - a brain injury caused by insufficient intake of oxygen to it (scientifically, hypoxia).Such a condition can occur in the baby still in utero or during birth.
Hypoxia leads to metabolic disorders Metabolism: The basis of life of all living in brain tissue, which in turn can cause the death of nerve cells and the development of severe brain damage.The more expressed a lack of oxygen that the baby had to endure, the greater may be the pathological changes.
By common cause of hypoxia include:
- Violations utero-placental circulation.
- Eating pregnant toxic substances (alcohol, tobacco, drugs).
- Infectious diseases in pregnancy.
- massive uterine bleeding Uterine bleeding is menstruation - a sign of a serious breach .
- Injury baby during childbirth.
- asphyxia (suffocation) at birth (for example, cord entanglement).
- Congenital cardiovascular system, or respiratory failure.
- Congenital pneumonia.
- ischemia Risks increase with multiple pregnancy and young mothers (under 20 years).
degrees of illness from mild to severe
Depending on the symptoms, neurologists are three degrees of severity of ischemia:
- The light (or first)
minor brain lesions.In full-term infants in this case diagnose the syndrome increased nervous excitability.It is manifested by frequent jerks, increased or decreased muscle tone, tremor of the chin, restless sleep Dreams: how to understand our dreams , unmotivated crying.
Other symptoms seen in premature babies, who act too slowly.The doctor says they oppression sucking reflex, decreased muscle tone, poor motor activity.
most often mild ischemia develops as a consequence of the small asphyxia at birth.
- Middle (second)
This kind of disease initially manifested central nervous system depression.The kid looks apathetic, he relaxed all reflexes and reduced muscle tone.By the end of the first month, replace these symptoms comes hyperexcitability syndrome.
Eventually appear to malfunction of the internal organs.The skin becomes uneven ("marbled") color.It degrades the performance of the digestive tract - the child may experience constipation, diarrhea, frequent vomiting, flatulence.
Often these children are marked convulsions.We are often short term, preterm - long.In attacks may occur twitching head jerks, sudden cessation of breathing (apnea).
Some young patients develop hypertension-hydrocephalic syndrome caused by increased intracranial pressure.Its main features are the rapid growth of the head, swelling of the posterior fontanelle, trembling of eyeballs.
- severe (third)
With this degree of ischemia of the child in the first days of life developed coma.Status required to assist in intensive care.
How is it diagnosed
to suspected ischemia, pediatrician enough to examine the baby.To clarify the diagnosis appoint additional methods of inspection:
This ultrasound of the brain, which is performed through another nezarosshy fontanelle.The technique is absolutely harmless and can be used even in children who are in intensive care.According to the study physician assesses the state of the brain, the surrounding liquid and reveals malformations.
- computer and magnetic resonance imaging (CT and MRI)
Assign if the results were not sufficiently informative neurosonography.Unlike the US, these techniques are able to detect the slightest changes in the structures of the brain.However, they can be run only in a hospital.Another drawback tomography child has to enter special drugs that during the investigation he did not make any unnecessary movements.
- electroencephalography (EEG)
This technique helps assess the extent of brain activity, and to establish the presence of seizures.To observe the development of the brain in dynamics, the doctor prescribes the procedure more than once.
results of all studies assessed in conjunction with the inspection data and information on the baby during pregnancy and childbirth.
What is the danger?
The prognosis depends on the severity of ischemia.Mild disease usually does not threaten your child.After a few months of life, these children do not differ from their healthy peers and further develop normally.
symptoms of second-degree ischemia time begun treatment fully extend to 1-2 years.In rare cases, children are retained its minor manifestations.
most frequent consequences of ischemia in newborns, which have to deal neurologists:
- mental retardation,
- hyperactivity disorder (manifest inability to concentrate, impaired learning, increased aggressiveness),
- cerebroasthenic syndrome (characterized by decreased performance, increased fatigue, restless sleep).
adverse outcomes of severe forms of the disease may be cerebral palsy and epilepsy.
treatment of ischemia in newborns Treatment should be initiated as early as possible, because in the first months of life of all violations in the brain are reversible.During this period the dead nerve cells can still be replaced.
treatment methods are selected individually.The objectives of the treatment measures are:
- create optimal conditions for the care of the child (providing peace, maintaining a comfortable room temperature, the maximum guard the baby from infection),
- maintenance of all vital organs grudnichka (if necessary, the doctor prescribes medicines,improves the function of the lungs, heart, kidneys),
- normalization of metabolism in the brain tissue (recommended drugs that stimulate cerebral circulation).
All children showing non-drug methods of recovery:
- gymnastics (especially lessons on inflatable balls),
- therapeutic baths,
These procedures help to eliminate movement disorders and contribute to the development of psychomotor child.