Neurosis - reaction to the nervous shock
word "neurosis" means "breakdown".The term in the late eighteenth century brought the Scottish physician William Cullen.It belongs to all the neuroses nervous disorders and symptoms, the specific reasons which could not be detected.Nowadays, neurosis - is a general term for a number of psychogenic disorders, which are usually reversible.
use of this term has been repeatedly discussed, and today in some countries it is not used in the formulation of diagnoses.Some doctors use it to describe a number of mental disorders that are not related to psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia or delusional disorder).Other experts - especially psychoanalysts use the term "neurosis" to describe the internal process (unconscious conflict), which can cause anxiety and other psychological problems.
disorders related to neurosis, different from psychotic disorders mainly to the fact that in the first case, the patients are well aware of the reality.Patients with psychotic disorders, in contrast, can be completely immersed in their own illusions.The main categories of neuroses:
- anxiety disorder - a disorder characterized by intense fear and anxiety anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease? , sometimes - panic attacks with physical symptoms such as tremors, chest pain Chest pain: one symptom - a lot of diseases , sweating and nausea.
- depressive neurosis.For this disorder characterized by feelings of deep despair and sadness, lack of interest in activities that used to bring pleasure, the inability to cope with everyday duties.
- depression, obsessive-compulsive also referred to as neurotic disorders.Patients suffering from this disorder, obsessive thoughts haunt from which they are trying to get rid of, to perform certain repetitive actions.
- hysterical neurosis.As a rule, this disorder the patient has physical symptoms, the occurrence of which can not be explained by any disease.They are believed to arise as a result of neurosis;phenomenon where psychological problems lead to the appearance of physical symptoms, called somatization.
- PTSD.This disorder is caused by a very severe stress, such as in people who took part in the hostilities, or have experienced the devastating natural disasters.
- Compensation neurosis - is, strictly speaking, not a real neurosis, and the shape of the simulation, when a person tries to mimic the symptoms of psychological disorders to achieve any goals.
in 1996 identified a particular gene and its alleles (forms of a gene, which also carry the genetic information, and thanks to which one symptom may develop in different ways), which is associated with development of neurosis.This gene helps control the level of serotonin in the blood due to the fact that the effect on the protein synthesis of the serotonin transporter.
protein transporter of serotonin helps to move through the synaptic space (spaces between neurons) to stimulate nerve cells and helps to carry out the re-uptake of serotonin.If a person has a so-called "gene neurosis" in his body can produce too little amount of protein transporter.Therefore, in the synaptic spaces will continue to be an excess of serotonin, and while the protein transporters will try to cope with the excessive amount of work will continue to stimulate serotonin nerve cells, with the result that there are characteristic symptoms of neurosis.The study, which was attended by 500 people, showed that in patients with various forms of neurosis do not produce enough of the protein transporter.
These results were confirmed in another study, in which hundreds of people were surveyed from 37 countries.In addition, according to reports, more women than men suffer from neurosis, and this trend is independent of cultural environment or on human well-being.However, another study involving 9,500 people, showed that low levels of life increases the likelihood of developing a neurosis.Based on the results of research, scientists have concluded that, although genetic predisposition plays an important role in the development of neuroses, we must also take into account external factors, first of all - socioeconomic.
Symptoms Common symptoms of neurosis are:
- Emotional instability;
- low self-esteem;
- Anxiety, fear;
- Frequent mood swings Mood swings in women - bad character or a disease? ;
- trouble concentrating;
- Sleep disorders Dreams: how to understand our dreams ;
Diagnosis and treatment
If you suspect a neurosis as soon as possible address to the doctor - without medical help the patient's condition is unlikely to improve.First of all, the doctor will examine the patient's medical history and conduct a survey to identify possible organic causes of the symptoms characteristic of neurosis - such as brain cancer.If the test results fail, the patient will be referred to a psychiatrist or other specialist who can diagnose mental illness.
method of treating neurosis depends on its species but also on the severity of symptoms.Typically, in the neuroses, various forms of psychotherapy (eg, cognitive-behavioral therapy and art therapy) and drug therapy.