Methods of therapy - correction of behavior through science
In psychotherapy, there are many different methods, each of which has a lot of supporters.In his work as a doctor may use one method at a time and use a variety of techniques and therapies.
As research in the field of psychotherapy are extremely difficult to determine which of the methods of psychotherapy is better, it is hardly possible.Research, which gave a more or less certain results, often focused on specific problems that are easy to identify, and the effectiveness of which can be assessed using specific criteria.For most mental disorders is not applicable, as they are extremely complex, and must be seen as a set of problems.We'll talk about some of the most common methods of psychotherapy, which are currently widely used to treat patients with a variety of disorders.
This vast trend in psychotherapy, whose representatives have introduced such familiar terms, like neurosis Neurosis - reaction to the nervous shock , conflict, object relations, unconscious defense mechanisms, idego, super-ego, libido, transference, countertransference, and many others.Here are some methods that are psychodynamic psychotherapy: psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis from it to the superego (Sigmund Freud), Adlerian psychotherapy (Alfred Adler), analytic therapy (Carl Jung), ego psychology (Heinz Kohut).
original Freudian theory based on the concept of conflict, which he considered the core of human existence.These conflicts arise when we try to agree on the biological side of his personality, with its social side.The main aspects of these conflicts relate to the unconscious, and affect the behavior of a person without his knowledge.The main objective of psychodynamic psychotherapy - to help people become aware of the unconscious, to better understand their needs and behavior, and take control of the influence of unconscious conflicts in their lives.
With Adlerian psychotherapy techniques to help patients overcome their sense of uncertainty and create a strong social and meaningful connections.They are convinced to correct misconceptions about themselves and about the world, and try to do something that previously seemed impossible.The growing self-confidence and awareness lead to the fact that the patient begins to more actively cooperate with the therapist as well as with others.As a result of treatment the person must give up the propensity to over-active defense of self and self-justification, and learn how to create a full-fledged relationship based on trust and openness.
Proponents of humanistic psychotherapy consider man as an integrated system consisting of the mind, body and spirit.Methods used in humanistic psychotherapy, based on the idea that each person has the ability to heal itself.Among the most prominent representatives of this method of psychotherapy - Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Existential psychotherapy is closely related to the humanistic, even though their principles were developed by different users.However, today most often use the term existential-humanistic psychotherapy that emphasizes the common roots of these methods.
main task of existential psychotherapy is to assist the patient in finding constructive solutions that will enable it to cope with the difficulties of everyday life.The specialist, using this method of psychotherapy focuses on individual experience, exploring his personal system of values and beliefs, and reveals their relationship to specific social and psychological problems of the patient.The therapist gives the same value of a person's past and present, as well as to what it expects from the future.
The existential-humanistic psychotherapy methods are used simultaneously humanistic and existential therapy.Unlike, for example, psychiatrists, therapists who use such techniques do not believe that all human problems have common roots (conflicts rooted in the unconscious).At the same time, highlighted the basic concepts around which there is much of psychological problems: death, freedom, responsibility, isolation and a sense of meaninglessness.
therapist using this method identifies the main patterns of thinking and behavior, determines exactly how a person supports them, and what effect they have on his life.Special attention in the cognitive behavioral therapy is given to irrational thinking, for example, automatic and catastrophic thoughts.After a detailed analysis will be thinking and behavior, the therapist and patient together will decide what needs to change in order to solve existing problems.This process can be repeated several times, as long as the objectives are achieved psychotherapy.
Some of the techniques that are used in cognitive behavioral therapy: relaxation Relaxation and stress - calm, not panic! , systematic desensitization, social skills training and training that strengthen confidence.Many of the techniques that apply to this type of therapy are derived from work Pavlov, John Watson, Joseph Volpe, Skinner.