Early menopause - is a term used to describe the conditions in which a woman for various reasons stopped menstruating.Early menopause is considered, occurred before 45 years.
climax comes when there are no monthly for 12 months or more in a row.Menstruation may stop if the ovaries are over the egg and / or they do not respond to hormonal signals of your body;it can also occur as a result of various injuries and / or surgically ovariectomized.
Before menopause a woman goes through a period called perimenopause.It lasts an average of two to six years, although some women this stage is much shorter or longer.
average age of menopause - 51 years, that is, the majority of women it occurs between the ages of 47 to 53 years old.
to determine the onset of menopause are two main factors 1) The period of time during which a woman did not have monthly and 2) the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).Analysis of FSH usually is used to confirm the onset of menopause.
brief overview of some of the states, which are often covered by the term "early menopause»
- Premature ovarian failure
This month cease violation, usually before 40 years of age;there are many other symptoms of menopause.Furthermore, analysis of hormone levels (in particular, FSH and estrogen) produces results that are typical of menopause.
Unlike conventional menopause, however, the premature extinction of the ovary does not necessarily mean that a woman's body no more eggs.Sometimes it is so - and then this state is rightly called early menopause.However, in some cases monthly terminated not because of lack of eggs, and due to the inability of the ovaries to respond to hormonal signals.
- From time to time, in spite of the reduced level of FSH in these women can be ovulating
Studies have shown that approximately 25% of women diagnosed with premature ovarian failure remains a viable egg;Moreover, 8-10% of which under certain conditions can become pregnant.Despite all this, premature ovarian failure is often attributed to early menopause.
- early menopause caused by surgery and / or treatment of cancer
There premature menopause occurs due to objective reasons.During treatment - for example, by removing the ovaries or during aggressive medical therapy, the ovaries are removed or damaged, causing the break periods.Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause both reversible and irreversible failure of the ovaries.
Causes of early menopause
- Autoimmune disorders
This is a common cause of premature ovarian failure.Recent studies have shown that 2/3 of women with this disorder has a particular autoimmune disorder.If the immune system produces antibodies to the tissues of the ovary, endometrium, or other parts of the reproductive system, over time it can lead to a significant deterioration of the ovaries.The risk of early menopause are those who have a personal or family history of autoimmune disorders (eg, thyroid disease Thyroid disease - women at risk , diabetes mellitus - threatening and incurable disease or rheumatoid arthritis).
- Chromosomal abnormalities
Hereditary predisposition to early menopause is associated with a defect on the X chromosome.This is a very complicated subject, but we will try to briefly explain the essence of the problem: every woman normally have two X chromosomes - and although only one of them is active, the defect in the other can lead to early menopause.This defect is penalized for production of eggs, so in women with a defect smaller eggs, which is why they begin menopause, usually in 6-8 years earlier than women without this disorder.
Turner Syndrome - another chromosomal disorder that can lead to premature menopause.In this case, the woman is completely or partially missing the second chromosome.Often women with Turner syndrome do not start menstruating because the ovaries do not develop sufficiently and can not produce estrogen.
presence of three X chromosomes also violates the ovaries and can cause early menopause.
premature ovarian failure
POF used to be called premature menopause as a condition that is characterized by the cessation of menstruation in women younger than 40 years.In the case of premature ovarian failure often show signs of menopause signs of menopause - when the desire is weakening in his eyes , including amenorrhea.However, a decisive role in the diagnosis of premature ovarian failure plays even cessation of monthly, and the results of hormonal analysis (analysis of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol hormone - the most active natural estrogen) indicate a post-menopausal state of the organism.
Unlike "normal" menopause, premature ovarian failure does not mean that the ovaries are depleted oocytes.
Yes, sometimes it happens in these cases, the disorder is fairly called "premature menopause".But in some cases, no menstruation ceases due to depletion of ovarian, and because the body does not respond to the signals to ovulation.
It is possible that the body produces sufficient amounts of estrogen Estrogen - the key to healthy bones for the appearance of menstruation every few months, even if the hormone levels correspond to postmenopausal (for example, even at the level of FSH 156 (corresponding to postmenopausal)you may receive the monthly).This phenomenon is not widespread, and this is the main difference between "normal" menopause syndrome and premature ovarian failure.
Moreover, premature ovarian failure does not exclude not only menstruation and ovulation.Studies have shown that 25% of women diagnosed with "premature ovarian failure" still have a viable follicles and from time to time ovulation occurs, and 8-10% of women with premature ovarian failure is possible to get pregnant and have a baby.This is the main difference between premature ovarian failure and menopause - women during menopause already unable to get pregnant because their bodies do not ovulate.
Sometimes early menopause is a result of surgery, radiation or chemotherapy.In this case obvious external cause changes in the body.
In case of surgery: after oophorectomy - surgery to remove the ovaries - the body stops production of ovarian hormones.Other abdominal surgery such as a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), also violate the blood supply to the ovaries, which eventually leads to premature ovarian failure.
radiation or chemotherapy also causes premature ovarian failure and cessation of production of ovarian hormones.