Antiviral drugs for pregnant women - permitted medications
Pregnant women try to avoid whenever possible medication.They rightly believe that the best way to take care of their health during the period of gestation of the child - a healthy lifestyle, taking prenatal vitamins and reasonable balance of work and rest.However, even a person who carefully monitor their health, can not be fully immune to the disease.Fortunately, many of antivirals for pregnant women is not so dangerous to them had to give up when a woman has a need for this type of medication.
What antivirals can be pregnant?
Herpes simplex virus Herpes simplex - actually not so simple very common, and according to statistics, developed acute herpes in the first trimester of pregnancy more than one per cent of women.Previously, it was believed that to treat herpes antiviral drugs in late pregnancy is perfectly safe, but in the first trimester, these medications can cause serious harm to the fetus.
few years ago published a report on a study conducted from 1996 to 2008.During this time, doctors reviewed the records of 837,795 children born in Denmark, trying to find an association between these antiherpetic drugs like acyclovir Acyclovir - as it is safe? , valacyclovir, and famciclovir in the first trimester of pregnancy, and the development of birth defects.Of the total number of cases studied, the mother of 1804 children in the first trimester of taking one of these drugs.In 40 of these children (2.2%) were diagnosed with severe congenital anomalies.For comparison, the remaining 835,991 cases of malformation have been 19 920 children (2.4%).At the moment it is the most extensive study of its kind, and the results suggest that the use of drugs in the early antiherpetic, as well as the later, gestation is quite safe.
Preparations for the treatment of influenza
The most common antiviral drugs used to treat influenza - oseltamivir (the active ingredient of Tamiflu) and zanamivir are considered safe for pregnant women and for breastfeeding women.The problem of influenza in pregnant women is always up to date.The incidence of influenza is steadily increasing at certain times of the year, and the risk of infection is further increased due to declining immunity in pregnant women.Influenza, as in most cases, though extremely unpleasant, but not particularly dangerous disease, can sometimes lead to serious complications.For this reason, during pregnancy is not recommended to treat the flu on their own and, especially, to try to move his legs.
Antivirals, if you start taking them in a timely manner, may slightly accelerate the recovery, ease the symptoms and reduce the risk of certain complications.
data on the impact of these drugs on fetal development are limited, but they do not give rise to serious concerns.In one study experts analyzed 61 case histories of women who during pregnancy received oseltamivir (though there is no exact information about the terms on which it occurred, as well as the duration of treatment).Of the 61 pregnancies ended in abortion, ten, six of which were carried out for medical reasons.In addition, it has been one case of trisomy of chromosome 21 (Down's syndrome) and anencephaly.
These results are generally consistent with the results of another study in which doctors interviewers newborns to 90 women, who in the first trimester of pregnancy took 75 mg of oseltamivir twice a day for five days.One child (1.1%) was found serious congenital disorder - ventricular septal defect (a type of congenital heart disease).On average, severe malformations that may affect the person's life, detected in 1.3% of newborns, that is, no more frequently than children whose mothers took during pregnancy drugs for the treatment of influenza.At the moment, most of the information received on the effects of oseltamivir in pregnant, and many experts believe the safest Tamiflu antiviral agent for expectant mothers.
This drug is widely used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus infections, but for pregnant women it is usually not prescribed as information on its safety to the fetus is extremely small.Animal studies have shown that taking ganciclovir may increase the risk of birth defects if taken in large doses.In cases where it, for some reason, all the same for pregnant women, birth defects detected not more than the average.However, doctors do not usually prescribed for pregnant ganciclovir - it is caused by the desire to avoid serious side effects, and the fact that this drug does not reduce the likelihood of CMV infection of the child.
If untreated, the likelihood that the child is HIV-infected women will be infected with HIV during pregnancy or childbirth is 25-40%.By taking antiretrovirals that risk is reduced to approximately ten percent.It will be even less if the woman and her doctor will take further measures for the prevention of infection of the child.
AZT - the first of the drugs of this type (it was designed in 1985 as a cure for cancer), and officially allowed to use during pregnancy.Recent studies have shown that children who are in utero exposed to the drug, the likelihood of mitochondrial toxicity is 0.26% (on average, this probability is only 0.01%).As far as we know today, other antiretroviral drugs are not associated with mitochondrial toxicity.However, the use of zidovudine exceeds the associated risks.If you use the medication correctly (it should be taken five times a day during the whole period of pregnancy, during labor do intravenous zidovudine, and then for six weeks newborn drug given), it dramatically reduces the risk of the child and, moreover, rarelyIt causes serious side effects.
The most common possible side effects of zidovudine are stomach pain, diarrhea or constipation, headache, dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet , sleep disorders Dreams: how to understand our dreams .
Tenofovir with properties similar to that of zidovudine, but it is better absorbed and rapidly distributed throughout the body.Perhaps in the not too distant future when the product will be better understood, it was he, not zinovudin become a first choice for antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women.
Side effects of tenofovir can be upset stomach, diarrhea, vomiting, flatulence, loss of appetite.