The hemoglobin during pregnancy - the norm of the future mom
Hemoglobin carries not only the inhaled oxygen throughout the body, but also transports about ten percent of the carbon dioxide, which generates a man, and some other gases.Hemoglobin during pregnancy, the rate of which is a measure of how many of these molecules is necessary for the full development of the fetus, serving just two living organisms.Expectant mothers during gestation baby falls more than once to be tested for hemoglobin, and if its level is lower than normal, can be assigned to receive these or other means to increase the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.
Hemoglobin - a protein that in man and other vertebrates contain erythrocytes.It is oxygen transporter and forms with oxygen unstable, reversible connection.The hemoglobin molecule, which formed due to oxygen, called oksigemaglobinom, and have a bright red color.Hemoglobin is the oxygen without - deoxyhemoglobin - bluish-purple color.
weight of the hemoglobin molecule is about 35% by weight of a red blood cell.One molecule may establish communication simultaneously with four molecules of oxygen.
hemoglobin level during pregnancy
Usually blood blood test: the mirror of health hemoglobin (and not only) made during the first visit to the doctor pregnant, as well as the twenty-fourth and thirtieth weeksgestation.The rate of hemoglobin during pregnancy depends on the period.Normal levels for pregnant women and, for comparison, non-pregnant, are given in the table below.
|Units||nonpregnant women||first trimester||Second trimester Third trimester|
|g / dl||12-15.8||11.6-13.9||9.7-14.8||9.5-15|
|g / l||120-158||116 - 139||97-148||95-150|
Why the low threshold rate of hemoglobin in pregnant women is significantly lower than in non-pregnant women?The fact is that during pregnancy increases sharply female need for iron, and iron is needed for the formation of hemoglobin molecules.Blood volume increases by nearly fifty percent, which means that a woman needs more iron in order to maintain an acceptable level of hemoglobin.In addition, it requires growing baby and placenta.Unfortunately, most women at the time of conception in the body does not have sufficient reserves of iron, which would meet the growing needs of the body, especially in the second and third trimester.
level of iron - and hemoglobin - will fall especially quickly if women often suffer from nausea and vomiting, if it has multiple pregnancy if her diet low in iron, and if before pregnancy she had very heavy menstruation.
glycated or glycosylated hemoglobin called hemoglobin, which is associated with glucose Glucose: The energy source .Its concentration is measured as a percentage of total hemoglobin.Normal levels of glycated hemoglobin - from 4.5 to 6.5%.If the concentration reaches 6.6-6.9%, it may indicate the development of prediabetes, and glycated hemoglobin level of 7% or higher is one of the signs of diabetes mellitus - threatening and incurable disease .
However, the analysis on glycated hemoglobin in pregnant women, as a rule, gives inaccurate information about the actual blood sugar levels sugar in the blood - a very important indicator woman.The fact that the level of glycated hemoglobin begins to rise only after two or three months after substantially increases the sugar concentration in the blood of patients with diabetes or prediabetes.This means that using this index can not quickly identify diabetes in pregnant women and, therefore, to take the necessary measures to prevent its complications.Therefore, for the diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes in pregnancy are typically used other analyzes, not test for glycated hemoglobin.
How to maintain the hemoglobin level is normal?
To hemoglobin levels during pregnancy remained normal, or increased, you need following nutrients:
- cancer.Approximately two thirds of all the iron, which is a human body is contained in the hemoglobin.When iron stores are reduced, which occurs very rapidly in pregnant women, decreased production of hemoglobin and red blood cells.To avoid this, you can take prenatal vitamins, but they should only be a supplement to a healthy, balanced diet.The richest sources of iron are chicken liver, 85 g of which contains 11 mg of iron.Quite a lot of the substance and beef liver, legumes, tofu, spinach, shellfish, raisins.Unfortunately, because plant foods iron is not absorbed as well as meat and offal, so the expectant mother, who hold a vegetarian diet, it is necessary to take iron supplements.
- Vitamin B6 is also required to maintain a normal level of hemoglobin in the blood.This vitamin is found in bacon, fish, liver, fortified grain cereals, potatoes.
- Vitamin 12 is required for production of red blood cells and hemoglobin.His sources are meat, dairy products, eggs, liver, shellfish.