- placental insufficiency - a deviation from the norm
placental insufficiency - a band name complications of pregnancy, in which the body of the child through the placenta receives insufficient oxygen andnutrients.
Placenta - this, in some way, the life support system of the fetus.It consists of a tissue obtained from both the mother (by about 4/5), and the fruit.To the top of the genera normal placenta is the organ of a reddish blue color with a diameter of 15 to 22 cm and a thickness of 2 to 4 cm. Its weight is 400-600 g (about 15% by weight of the newborn).Prior to the birth, she regularly performs its functions, providing the child with everything necessary.In some cases, however, the placenta is not quite cope with their tasks.
reasons placental insufficiency
fetoplatsentaranoy main reason for failure is a violation of blood flow through the placenta.This, in turn, can be very diverse causes.Sometimes a disruption of blood flow causes damage to the placental tissue
In addition, placental insufficiency may lead:
- High blood pressure Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing? (especially if the patient does not take steps to control it);
- taking certain medications (especially anticoagulants such as warfarin Warfarin - indirect anticoagulants and heparin);
- Reception illicit drugs (in this regard the most dangerous are cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine).
symptoms of placental insufficiency
fetoplacental insufficiency usually does not cause long any symptoms, but there are several factors that can influence it.These include:
- weight gain during pregnancy;
- increase in the size of the uterus;
- fetal growth;
- Activity fetus.
Weight mother.The normal weight pregnant women after the first trimester increases to 400-500 g per week (in the first trimester it can not change, and sometimes even a little weight is reduced).Weight increases the expense of the fetus, placenta, increasing the volume of fluid in the body, and the body fat, the volume of which during the childbearing also increases slightly.All of these factors are somehow associated with hormonal women, as well as the functioning of the placenta.If a woman gains weight too slow, it may be grounds for suspicion that she developed fetoplacental insufficiency.
increase in the size of the uterus.If the pregnancy is normal, since the sixteenth week of uterine fundus height should be increased by about a centimeter per week.With an average size of the fetus and multiple pregnancies, the height of the uterine fundus is usually equal to the number of weeks of gestation plus / minuts two centimeters.
Measuring the girth of the abdomen is not very accurate method to estimate the increase in the size of the uterus of a pregnant woman.
If the uterus is growing too slowly, it is the basis for the survey, in which the doctor can determine how well the placenta.
fetal growth.In order to monitor the growth of the fetus, pregnant women should have regular ultrasonography (US).One of the best ways to assess properly whether the child grows, is as follows: doctor measures the girth of the fetal abdomen at the level of his liver (using an image on the screen), and compares it to the girth of the head.If ultrasound results show that the baby is growing too slowly can be assigned to other diagnostic procedures.
Activity fetus.One of the most important indicators of the normal functioning of the placenta is the high activity of the fetus.At a certain stage of pregnancy, the mother can evaluate it yourself, watching how often she feels the movement of the child.Another indicator is the fetal heart rate, which the doctor can measure for suspected placental insufficiency.
The severity of symptoms of placental insufficiency is closely related to its stage.So, fetoplacental insufficiency of 1 degree is weak, and does not represent a serious threat to the child and the mother.2 degree of the violation can lead to various health problems in the fetus (including a delay in development), and fetoplacental insufficiency of 3 degrees, which, fortunately, is rare, is potentially dangerous to his life.
In addition, there are the following forms of violation:
- chronic fetoplacental insufficiency.This form progresses slowly violations, so that the patient herself and even her doctor may notice signs of trouble later.In some cases, this is the reason that the body of the fetus for a long time has not been sufficient oxygen;
- Acute fetoplacental failure develops rapidly, can cause placental abruption, severe vaginal bleeding vaginal bleeding - if monthly return when they were not expecting and other complications.