Explanation ultrasound during pregnancy - basic indicators
Explanation ultrasound during pregnancy - it is the competence of the doctor.To decrypt need to know all the peculiarities of pregnancy and its complications.However, women should be aware of their condition, because nothing scares like the unknown.Therefore, obstetricians usually report a pregnant woman that she revealed to conduct an ultrasound.
Decoding results in pregnancy ultrasound
Every woman during pregnancy is scheduled to undergo three ultrasound.In addition, if found any pathology, it may assign additional ultrasound, the amount of which is determined by necessity.
Every time a woman gets in the hands of a report, which is extremely difficult to understand and it is unnerving.Fully understand these conclusions only by a doctor.Nevertheless, the basic parameters can be decoded independently.So, at the first ultrasound (11-13 weeks), the fetus identify the most serious malformations, chromosomal disease.Fetal malformations Fetal development - week after week in this period can be determined by the thickness of the neck area - the back of the neck.The thickness of the neck area, in excess of the standard indicates the presence of fetal malformations or chromosomal disorders (eg Down's syndrome).To suspect the presence of fetal heart defects Heart defects - time heals? possible on heart rate (HR).Heart rate indicator above or below the norm (norm - 120-160 cuts per second) requires a thorough examination of the heart during the second scheduled ultrasound.You can see a multiple pregnancy, the placenta and the emerging state of the uterine wall.
The second ultrasound (21-24 weeks) can reveal anomalies of the internal organs, which were not identified at the first ultrasound, placental circulation disorders and symptoms of infection of the fetus.For example, heart disease can be confirmed when we look at the heart valves.Heart rate indicator above or below normal may indicate fetal distress associated with a lack of oxygen and nutrients.
The third ultrasound to determine the degree of maturity of the fetus as a whole and its individual organs.Of particular importance is the study of the readiness to adult existence of fetal lung.If the lungs are not mature enough, the child may die after birth.
How to decipher ultrasound pregnancy - the size of the fetus
The first ultrasound of the fetus is determined by the size of the gestational sac diameter (DPJ), the coccyx-rump length of the fetus (CTE) that is the size of the crown to rump.To determine the duration of pregnancy determine the size of the uterus.
In the second and third ultrasound determine the size of the fetus are:
- head circumference (OG);
- biparietal diameter (BPD) - a dimension between the temporal bone;
- fronto-occipital size (LZR);
- abdominal circumference (OJ);
- femur length;
- length of the humerus.
The results are compared with existing standards.In the case where the received size of less than standard talk about intrauterine growth retardation (VZRP) and appoint an additional examination for circulatory disorders in the "mother-placenta - fetus" (placental insufficiency - FPI).
Explanation ultrasound during pregnancy - a condition of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid
The first ultrasound assess the condition of the outer shell of the ovum (chorionic villus sampling), on which later formed the placenta.From the point of attachment to the uterine wall chorionic to the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen.
On US situs chorionic determined and subsequently the placenta.It is particularly important to determine how close the placenta is the inner zevu cervix (the exit from the uterus), and whether it does not cover it.In the latter case we speak of placenta previa and a woman in the future prepare for cesarean section.Sometimes, by the time of birth and the location of the placenta varies then the woman gave birth alone.
In the second and third ultrasound determine the structure of the placenta, which speaks volumes about its maturity.There are 4 degree of maturity of the placenta.Normally the second degree is 32 weeks, and the third - 36, the fourth - after 36. More rapid maturation of the placenta called premature aging.This state indicates poor circulation in the placenta, and requires further examination.
measured and compared with the standards of the thickness of the placenta.The change in thickness may be associated with an inflammatory process, so women spend an additional examination.
can be seen on ultrasound premature detachment of the placenta, which is a serious complication of pregnancy and requires emergency care.
The umbilical cord connects the placenta to the fetus.On US quantify vessels in the umbilical cord and the location of its hinges.Blood circulation in the umbilical cord and placenta is tested using Doppler.
amount of amniotic fluid is determined using amniotic index (AI) according to a special formula.Normally, the AI at 28 weeks is 12-20 cm in 33 weeks - 10-20 cm. Growth indicators AI says polyhydramnios, reduction - of dry years.This symptom may indicate poor circulation in the placenta and developing FPN.If intrauterine infection amniotic water can contain impurities.
Decoding ultrasound during pregnancy is still better to trust the doctor.