The consequences of premature birth to the child: observation and treatment
Births start at any time prior to the thirty-seventh week of pregnancy are considered premature, while babies born prematurely - prematurely.Since prematurity begin until the completion of the formation of all the systems of the body of the newborn, premature babies are born weak, with some defects, much more ill.The prematurely born child, the greater the chance of complications caused by prematurity.Fortunately, many of the consequences of preterm delivery are well treatable.
most common consequences of premature birth
underdeveloped lungs - most children completed the formation of light to achieve the thirty-sixth weeks of gestational age.However, since the rate of fetal development is individual and sometimes lung maturation may continue until the due date of birth.If it is known beforehand that the birth will come ahead of schedule, to accelerate this process can be used with prior steroid injections amniocentesis (amniocentesis, which allows to determine, including, and the degree of formation of the lungs).Underdeveloped lungs - one of the most serious consequences of preterm labor, which in itself can cause a number of serious health problems of the newborn.Among them:
- respiratory failure, or idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome - a condition that causes rapid, irregular breathing the newborn.Treatment involves several different techniques: collateral lung newborn oxygen through an oxygen mask, respirator, endotracheal intubation, maintaining continuous positive airway pressure.
- Tachypnea - rapid shallow breathing.This condition can be observed in preterm and in children born at term.Usually three days this state is held, and to restore breathing can be administered by intravenous nutrition.Specific treatment is not usually required.
- bronchopulmonary (pulmonary) dysplasia Dysplasia - what is it? occurs when the deterioration of the lungs of a premature baby.Since the baby's lungs are underdeveloped, once connected to a respirator light sometimes can not withstand the constant pressure, and their work is broken.Pulmonary Dysplasia - reversible, treatable condition, recovery of which, however, can be quite long.
- Pneumonia - amid all the possible complications caused by underdeveloped lungs, pneumonia is one of the most dangerous consequences of premature birth.Pneumonia - lung infection that affects the lung area, which is involved in the metabolism of carbon dioxide and oxygen.As a result of this inflammation of the lung volume becomes smaller, and as a result, the body receives too little oxygen.Pneumonia - is very dangerous for a newborn child disease that requires surgery.The main methods of treatment - antibiotics, providing supplemental oxygen, intubation.Lack of treatment can lead to death.
apnea and bradycardia apnea stop breathing (apnea) during sleep - upper airway obstruction - this is a temporary cessation of breathing: the alarm - irregular breathing pauses at intervals longer than ten to fifteen seconds.Bradycardia - slow heartbeat (disturbing symptom - less than one hundred beats per minute).
infection - as the body of a premature baby underdeveloped immune system of the baby can not cope with the task of suppressing the activity of harmful microorganisms.A premature baby is particularly vulnerable to various kinds of infections.That is why premature babies are often placed in an incubator, which protects them from potential infections.
Jaundice - yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by an increase in blood levels of bilirubin, a substance produced by the liver.Treatment of jaundice in premature infants usually involves multiple sessions phototherapy Phototherapy - restores vitality , the duration of treatment can range from seven to ten days.
intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain ventricles) - children born before the thirty-fourth week of pregnancy, the risk of bleeding in the brain is much higher.This is because the immature blood vessels are not able to cope with changes in blood flow, occurs during childbirth.Intraventricular hemorrhage can lead to serious complications - cerebral palsy, mental retardation Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped , retardation in development.Intracranial hemorrhage is observed, according to statistics, from thirty to thirty percent of children born in the twenty-fourth - the twenty-sixth week of pregnancy.
Failure to retain body heat - in a premature baby is not enough fat and not formed until the end of the skin, so the body is not able to maintain body heat.In order to maintain normal body temperature necessary to placement of the child in an incubator.
underdeveloped digestive system - in the event of premature birth the baby's digestive system and gastrointestinal tract are not fully formed, so the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients is broken.For this reason, the introduction of nutrient mixtures used intravenously (so-called total parenteral nutrition).After a few days, if the child's condition is stable, used breastfeeds or mixtures of nutrients through a tube as a premature baby is not yet able to swallow or suck the milk by yourself.
Anemia - disorder caused by abnormally low concentration of red blood cells.Red blood cells carry hemoglobin, which in turn is the "transport" for oxygen.The normal level of red blood cells in newborns - more than fifteen grams.In severe cases of anemia is used a blood transfusion to the newborn.
Retroretalnaya prematurity syndrome (Terry) - a disease potentially capable of depriving the child of view.Very often the syndrome occurs in premature infants born in the twenty-fourth - twenty-six weeks of pregnancy, and only in rare cases - in preterm infants, gestational age of thirty-three - thirty-four weeks.Treatment of the disease depends on the severity of the disease and may include laser surgery or cryosurgery.
Necrotizing enterocolitis - a disease caused by blood circulation in any of the intestine, which in turn leads to infection in the intestinal wall.The main methods of treatment - intravenous nutrition and antibiotics.Surgical intervention is required in rare cases.
sepsis (septicemia) - a bacterial infection of the blood character.If a bacterial infection spreads to the lungs, at the same time may develop pneumonia.Septicaemia is very dangerous, but respond well to treatment with antibiotics.