Rh factor - is still a medical mystery
- Rh factor - is still a medical mystery
- mechanism of Rh-conflict
About Rh factor as medical problems today do not speak very often,and until the mid-20th century it was a major health problem.In particular, it is each year causes the death of tens or even hundreds of thousands of deaths of young children worldwide.
Rh factor - a genetic feature that relates to the presence of a certain protein on the surface of red blood cells.If this protein is, the Rh factor - is the most common - positive.In the absence of this protein in humans will have a negative Rh factor.Rh factor is absolutely no effect on human health, but it can have an impact on the pregnancy.If a woman has Rh-negative and the father of her child - positive during pregnancy, she may need special care.Rh factor is determined woman has during the first prenatal visit.This simple analysis does not require special preparation of the patient.
In 1939, the work was first published, in which the mentioned hemolytic reactions as a result of blood transfusions, and the development and neonatal severe hemophilia Hemophilia - a rare, but the disease sign .The study found that the serum of a woman caused the bonding of red blood cells of blood about 80% of the subjects, even though their blood type matched.In 1940, another study suggests serum that caused agglutination of 85% of blood samples of different people.
A few years later was identified D-antigen - the same protein, whereby the blood refers to the rhesus-positive.Soon Rh began to consider blood transfusion, as well as in the care of pregnant women.Now, with rare exceptions, people donated blood transfusions, which coincides with their own blood group Blood groups - what do you know yours? and Rh factor.However, for several years, it is widely practiced transfusion of Rh-negative blood to people with a positive Rh factor.
during pregnancy - or, more likely, at the time of delivery, a small amount of the baby's blood can mix with the mother's blood.If the mother has a positive Rh factor, it is not a problem.However, if the mother has Rh-negative and the baby - is positive, the mother may develop antibodies to the D-antigen.During the first pregnancy that may not cause any problems, but if there are subsequent pregnancies, and child will again Rhesus positive red blood cells may attack antibodies child.As a result, the child may develop severe anemia and other dangerous condition.
Blood tests for antibodies do twice during pregnancy - in the first trimester and after 28 weeks.If antibody production Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity does not start, women are injected Rh immunoglobulin to prevent their production during the current pregnancy.If the baby is born Rh positive, soon after birth need another injection.As a rule, such injections are required during all subsequent pregnancies, as well as after the birth of children with a positive Rh factor.In addition, the injection of Rh immunoglobulin may be necessary after a miscarriage Miscarriage - whether it can be insured? , abortion, ectopic pregnancy, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, bleeding and abdominal trauma during pregnancy.
If the analysis shows that antibody production has already begun, Rh immune globulin does not help.In this case, the state will closely monitor the child;if necessary, blood transfusions before birth through the umbilical cord, or immediately after birth.
With proper care can avoid serious problems that a few decades ago faced many women with Rh-negative.