Pneumonia - Symptoms and Causes
Pneumonia - is a serious disease, even in this age of antibiotics, before it is considered deadly.If you suspect pneumonia, the patient is usually hospitalized and treated in a hospital.This allows for treatment under the supervision of radiological and laboratory studies.
causes of pneumonia
main cause of pneumonia or pneumonia - viral, bacterial and fungal infections fungal infection: to prevent and defeat , different pathogens which expressed pneumotropic (propensity to defeat the lung tissue).These are some types of staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, Candida fungi, mycoplasmas, viruses, flu and other respiratory infections, and so on.
pneumonia often occurs as a complication of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, but sometimes the disease begins with inflammation of the lung tissue.Contributing factors may be reduced immunity, colds, respiratory tract burns, damage to toxic substances such as choking, inhalation of substances that irritate the respiratory tract (eg dichlorvos).
Pneumonia can be acute or chronic.Acute pneumonia in turn divided into lobar and focal.
Signs of pneumonia
lobar pneumonia - the defeat of an entire lobe of the lung, which is caused by pneumococcus.He does not usually preceded by acute respiratory illness, or some other infection, the disease begins abruptly with symptoms of pneumonia.
patient suddenly rises sharply to a high body temperature of numbers, there is a fever and pain in the side to the interested party.Flank pain worse with a deep breath, and coughing.Almost immediately, there is shortness of breath, and then joins a rare dry cough.The intensity of the cough may increase, it becomes obsessive, but in some cases, cough in the early days not at all.
nature of the external treatment of the patient: the bright red color of the cheeks (or red spots on the cheek) to the side where the light struck, flared nostrils, slightly blue lips.Sometimes the patient loses consciousness and he starts raving.Two days later, a third less than the cough becomes dry, there is little clear, viscous mucus, which in some places there are streaks of blood.A few days later the sputum becomes "rusty" from the impurity levels.
pain when breathing due to the fact that in lobar pneumonia in the process almost always involves the pleura (thin film covering the lungs), in which a lot of nerve endings.When lobar pneumonia is almost always suffering from cardiovascular system - the heart beat becomes very frequent (tachycardia) and irregularly.
All manifestations of lobar pneumonia may hold up to the crescent and more, after which the disease is on the decline.Lobar pneumonia may be complicated by suppuration (abscess) light and severe complications from cardio-vascular system.
Symptoms of focal pneumonia
Focal pneumonia - an inflammation of the small area of the lung.It starts as acute focal pneumonia, with fever up to high numbers and violation of general condition of the patient in the form of weakness and malaise.Cough with focal pneumonia usually appears at once, he or dry or wet, with the office of the serous (a sign of inflammation without pus) sputum, which may be found streaks of blood.Chest pain, or not at all, or they are expressed moderately.Over time, the amount of sputum increases, it becomes purulent.Unlike the focal lobar pneumonia it is often a complication of bacterial and viral diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
If the patient was promptly assigned to appropriate treatment, the temperature usually does not hold more than five days, and then begins the healing process.The total focal pneumonia lasts 3-4 weeks.Today, due to frequent self-focal pneumonia with antibiotics more often asymptomatic, and did not finish the cure becomes chronic.
The most common symptom is a cough pneumonia.In some cases, the patient cough up phlegm yellowish, greenish, brownish color;sometimes there is blood in the sputum.
also frequently observed in patients with the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath, even when a person is at rest;
- increased heart rate;
- general malaise;
- Sweating and trembling;
- lack of appetite;
- chest pain.
following symptoms of pneumonia are less common:
- Coughing up blood;
- wheezy breathing;
- pain in joints and muscles;
- confusion and disorientation (especially common in the elderly).When the symptoms should immediately seek medical help.
symptoms in healthy adults
Bacterial pneumonia.In healthy adults the symptoms of pneumonia caused by bacteria usually appear suddenly.Disease often develops during or after the infection of the upper respiratory tract.Symptoms of pneumonia can be:
- cough, often with expectoration;
- heat - in middle age is less common than in the young;
- Rapid, shallow breathing;
- Heart palpitations;
- Chest pain that increases when a person coughs;
- Weakness and feeling very tired;
- nausea and vomiting;
non-bacterial pneumonia.Symptoms of this type of pneumonia usually appear gradually, and often they are expressed not as intense as in bacterial pneumonia.In typical cases, patients experience the following symptoms:
- rapid breathing;
- Coughing up small amounts of phlegm.
Often the symptoms are so mild that the patient carries the disease on their feet, and did not go to the doctor.
symptoms in the elderly and children
The elderly pneumonia usually occurs with mild symptoms;most frequently observed dry cough dry cough - whether to worry about it? and a slight rise in body temperature.However, worsening, or severe forms of pneumonia, they may appear confusion and even delirium.
symptoms of pneumonia in children Pneumonia in children - the main symptoms for different ages depend on age:
- Infants observed decreased activity, loss of appetite, wheezing or stertorous breathing, and fever;
- older children pneumonia occurs with the same symptoms as adults.
symptoms of chronic inflammation of the lungs
chronic inflammation of the lungs usually occurs when undertreated acute pneumonia when the lungs is the focus of inflammation.It is in this place and there are pockets of exacerbation (relapse), and the frequent changes of the lung tissue is altered connective tissue, ie lung fibrosis develops.As a result of this process is disturbed lung function, they can not fully supply all the body of oxygen, so the heart has to work with a vengeance, which can not but have an effect on his condition.
Thus, in chronic pneumonia eventually formed pulmonary heart disease Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work .
Chronic pneumonia manifested cough, chest pain on the affected side, rarely - hemoptysis, small (low-grade) fever, general malaise, weakness.But more often in remission (without exacerbation) patients almost nothing disturbs.During exacerbation of pneumonia their condition worsens, feverish and coughing.
treatment as acute pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic pneumonia should be given only in a hospital.