diabetes - a chronic, incurable disease that affects the body's ability to process energy from food.There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.
All types of diabetes have common features.Normally, the human body breaks down sugars and carbohydrates consumed on a special type of sugar - glucose.Glucose is the "fuel" for the body's cells.However, cells need insulin - a hormone contained in the blood, which facilitates absorption of glucose and its processing into energy.Diabetic patients body either can not produce enough insulin or can not use the insulin produced, or these two problems are presented in the complex.
Since cells can not metabolize glucose, it accumulates in the blood.High blood glucose levels can lead to damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system.Therefore, in patients with diabetes - particularly non-conductive treatment - can later develop heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindnes
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is called insulin.Previously, it was called the juvenile, because this type of diabetes often develops in childhood.
Type 1 diabetes - an autoimmune disease.It occurs when the body begins to attack your thyroid antibodies.Therefore, in patients with type 1 diabetes damage to the pancreas can not produce insulin.
reason for the development of the disease may be genetic predisposition.It may also be the result of damage to the beta cells of the pancreas which synthesize insulin.
with type 1 diabetes are associated some medical risk factors.Many of them are the result of damage to small blood vessels in the eye (diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidney (diabetic nephropathy).Even more serious is the risk of stroke and of developing heart disease.
For treatment of type 1 diabetes insulin is used, which is injected through injection into fat tissue.Regularly held hemoglobin A1C test to determine the level of glucose Glucose: The energy source in the patient's blood during the past three months.This helps to completely control the level of glucose and the risk of complications caused by diabetes, including damage to internal organs.
Patients with type 1 diabetes have to radically change their lifestyle, which includes:
- systematic analysis on blood sugar sugar in the blood - a very important indicator
- Careful planning diet
- Daily exercise
- taking insulin and other essential drugs.
People with type 1 diabetes can live a long active life, if you will carefully monitor the level of glucose in the blood, to change lifestyle and will strictly follow the treatment plan.
Type 2 diabetes
much more common form of diabetes is type 2.He was called diabetes adulthood, as it often appears in people adults.Unfortunately, with the advent of the huge number of young people suffering from obesity and overweight, the disease is increasingly affecting teenagers and young adults.This type of diabetes is also called non-insulin dependent.95% of middle-aged people with diabetes have this type of disease.
This form of diabetes easier than type 1 diabetes.But type 2 diabetes can cause serious complications, especially in the fact that due to the tiny blood vessels exercising the power of kidneys, nerves and eyes.In addition, it increases the risk of heart disease and stroke risk.
Usually thyroid gland of patients with type 2 diabetes produce some insulin.But either this amount is insufficient to meet the body's needs, or the cells are resistant to insulin Principles of insulin - the science of saving lives .Insulin resistance occurs primarily in the fat, muscle cells and liver cells.
People who are obese - that is, people who weigh more than 20% above the ideal body weight for their growth - the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and associated complications is particularly high.These people have insulin resistance.This means that the pancreas has to work at full capacity, to synthesize more insulin.But still not enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health .
Diabetes is incurable, but Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by optimizing the weight, diet and regular exercise.Unfortunately, this type of the disease is usually progressive, and receive medicines for the treatment of diabetes is essential.
To test the effectiveness of diet, exercise and medications recommended to regularly test A1C.It is necessary to monitor blood sugar levels and prevent damage to internal organs.Usually A1C test is carried out several times a year.