Early childhood - this is an extremely important period in terms of physical, social and psychological development of the child.Man appears to light having a very limited number of skills and capabilities - as compared to those which he acquires later.But he is very much learning in the early years of life, and people watching the early development of children, often are surprised how quickly they are from virtually helpless creatures turn into people who want as much as possible just to make your own - and often they pretty well.
development of motor skills at an early age
As the child grows, his nervous system matures.As a result, the child is to successfully perform various tasks.The rate of motor development is a common source of concern among parents, many of whom are worried enough to quickly develop a child and compare it with the other children of the same age.However, the rate of development at all different, though of course there are certain limits of normal.The following skill
- gross motor skills.The development of gross motor skills associated with the development of the large muscles of the body in the first place - the muscles in the arms and legs.By gross motor skills include walking, running, ability to maintain balance and coordination of movements.
- fine motor skills.In the fine motor skills meet the small muscles of the eyes, fingers, and so on.Fine motor skills - a drawing, writing, ability to grab hold, throw (the last three skills should manifest itself in the early development of children).
physical development of children in early childhood
first developing large muscles, then - fine.Thus, the muscles of the torso, arms and legs before developing muscles of the fingers and hands.For this reason, fine motor skills develop after fairly well developed gross motor skills.
central part of the body is developing rapidly, "the periphery."The muscles of the body in children develop and become stronger before the muscles of the arms and legs.
muscle development comes from the top down, from head to toes.For this reason, children first learn to keep your head, then begin to crawl, and then - walk.
cognitive development at an early age
In the field of cognitive development include memory, ability for reasoning and problem solving, as well as other features that develop in children.Speaking of the early intellectual development of the child, it is difficult not to mention Jean Piaget - famous psychologist known for his work on the psychology of children.
received his doctorate at 22, Jean Piaget began his long career, which has left a deep mark in psychology and pedagogy.Based on the results of long-term studies, he came to the conclusion that children are not less intelligent than adults, they just think differently.Albert Einstein called this conclusion Piaget "is so simple that it could get away with just a genius."According to Jean Piaget, children - are little scientists who are actively trying to understand the world, and not just passively absorb information.
cognitive scheme - one of the fundamental concepts in the theory of Piaget about the intellectual development of the child.It is a scheme created in the mind concepts that help people organize and interpret information.The new information is used to change, supplement, or completely remodel the existing schemes.For example, in the mind of a little girl there is a diagram of a certain form of animals, such as cats.Under its scheme, fluffy cats and have four legs.When she first saw the dog, it may first come to the conclusion that this animal - a cat.However, when she notices the difference dog from a cat, or someone she explains what these animals are different, it is reviewing its scheme for cats and creates a new category for dogs.In the future, it can create a general scheme for pets, and so forth.
stages of intellectual development
sensorimotor intelligence is the earliest stage of development of Piaget's theory of intelligence.So-called period of up to two years, when knowledge about the world of the child receives only through perception and motor activity.
dooperotsionalnyh stage performances - the period between the second and the sixth years of life, when a child learns to use human language.At this age, children are not capable of logical thinking (within the meaning adults) can not mentally manipulate information, and can not get the point of view of other people.
These two date back to the period of early child development and is an important step for his future life.
earlier speech development
Scientists have discovered that it begins to develop even before the baby is born - the fruit is already able to distinguish the mother's voice and intonation are likely to understand their value (although, of course, it is stillHe does not understand the words).By four months infants already distinguish speech sounds and can even react to the movement of the lips - in short, they are almost read lips!Furthermore, during research, it was found that small children distinguish speech sounds of different languages, and not only the language, which is spoken at home.However, approximately ten months this ability disappears, and the child begins to respond properly only by the sounds of his native language.
There are several theories about the development of speech.According to one of them, in early childhood, it is caused by the fact that the child imitates adults.According to supporters of another theory, children are born with a certain voice tool that allows them to produce sounds, as soon as they acquire big enough vocabulary.
Communication with parents play an important role in the early development of speech.Studies have shown that a particular type of speech that parents typically use to talk with their children - simple and short sentences characteristic high tone - help the child learn it quickly and start talking to.As the child develops, the parents begin to talk to him more and more "grown-up" by adapting their needs.