Hodgkin's disease in children - less than in adults
Lymphogranulomatosis in children is a rare disease.In this case children under five years old, he is very rare, and in children under one year does not occur at all.A feature of Hodgkin's disease in children is that its symptoms are often mistaken for symptoms of infectious and inflammatory diseases.This leads in some cases to identify it later.
Causes of Hodgkin's disease in children
Lymphogranulomatosis - is a cancer, a cancer of the lymphatic tissue.Most often it begins with the defeat of the lymph nodes.But lymphatic tissue located in the intestinal walls, thymus, tonsils, adenoids, and so on.So sometimes defeat begins with these bodies.
Causes Hodgkin Lymphogranulomatosis or Hodgkin's disease still unknown.But it found that are important viral infection (pathogen - Epstein-Barr virus), low immunity and genetic predisposition.Tumor growing in T-lymphoid tissues, and thereby promotes further reduction of immunity.The main histological features of the disease are giant Berezovsky-Sternberg cells.
Symptoms of Hodgkin's disease in children
The disease most often begins unnoticed and proceeds chronically.The very first symptom is usually swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, submandibular, and so on.First, one can increase lymph node Lymph nodes - what keeps our immune system , then it may not be palpable, but after some time appears again and no longer disappears and the next increase other lymph nodes, forming a conglomerate.
Lymph nodes are usually painless, have tightly-elastic consistency and soldered together.Most swollen lymph nodes associated with the child's existing ENT diseases, mostly chronic tonsillitis Chronic tonsillitis - inflammation of the tonsils and adenoiditis.This hinders timely detection of Hodgkin's disease and creates problems in its treatment.
primary lymph node enlargement can occur in the mediastinum.In such cases, children receive protracted cough, shortness of breath and then.This version of the current Hodgkin's disease often is not detected in a timely manner, as the cough is taken as one of the symptoms of viral infections and their consequences.
If lymph nodes are increased in the abdominal cavity, it can lead to bowel obstruction, pain in the right hypochondrium, the appearance of jaundice due to compression of enlarged lymph nodes.After a while the symptoms of internal organ and bone.
Common signs of the disease include the appearance of intoxication in the form of general malaise, weakness (formerly lively child becomes drowsy and lethargic), loss of appetite, weight loss.
Sometimes lymphoma begins acute or subacute, which is a poor prognostic sign.In this case, the child has a fever, sometimes as high numbers, and then decreases, which is accompanied by profuse cold sweat.Fever is often a long wavy character.Headaches, pain in muscles and joints, and against this background that increased lymph nodes.
duration of the disease may be different - from a few months (acute and subacute) to several years.
diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease in children
presence of Hodgkin's disease can be suspected when enlarged lymph nodes in patients without inflammation of upper respiratory tract.In general, the analysis of blood appears sharply increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (this is very typical for Hodgkin's disease), and signs of anemia.Further examination is conducted specifically: biochemical analysis of blood (liver dysfunction), radiography of the chest cavity (reveal enlarged lymph nodes Enlarged lymph nodes - a reason for seeking medical attention mediastinum), ultrasound chest and abdomen (also revealed enlarged lymph nodes).To clarify the status of the lymph nodes are sometimes carried out magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
But the most important confirmation of the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease is a histological examination of tissue lymph nodes taken by biopsy.
detection in tissue giant Berezovsky-Sternberg cells and their precursors - the cells of Hodgkin's is a reliable sign of Hodgkin's disease.
Treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children
Treatment is carried out by a specially developed technique.The main treatments are radiation and chemotherapy.Using these techniques try to suppress tumor growth.Very effective radiotherapy for early stages of the disease.At later stages of treatment administered in the form of a combination of radiation therapy in conjunction with administration of anticancer drugs.Sustained remission in children unable to reach even with advanced cases of Hodgkin's disease.