Hip dysplasia: note
hip dysplasia called a violation of the formation of anatomical structures that make up the hip joint, which is extreme - congenital dislocation of the hip - if untreated, leads to absolute disability.Hip dysplasia - a very common pathology, which is found in all countries, with a frequency of one to five hundred newborns, and in two to three times more common in girls than in boys.
Causes and classification
Musculoskeletal system is laid on the fourth-fifth week of fetal development, transformed after the child begins to walk confidently and only eighteen years finally formed.So fundamentally important early diagnosis and treatment is necessary abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system.
include hip dysplasia are distinguished:
- congenital hip predvyvih
- congenital subluxation of the hip, congenital hip dislocation
- immaturity of the hip joint.
causes of hip dysplasia have been little studied, risk factors include the available pathology of hip joints with relatives, toxemia of pregnancy in the first trimester of the mother, breech presentation, tight swaddling a newborn and limited mobility, historically characteristic of the Slavic peoples.
Clinical presentation and diagnosis
In many countries of the world adopted the following scheme of diagnosis of congenital dysplasia dysplasia - What is it? hips: expert examination in the first days after birth, an orthopedic examination in one to three months, with a mandatory ultrasound, and then - a year.
When viewed from a child expert drew attention to the presence of the following symptoms in a child:
- shortened limbs on the side of dislocation.It may be small when expressed mild dysplasia or bilateral dysplasia.
- asymmetry of skin folds on his hip.A healthy child is usually three pairs of symmetric permanent skin folds on the anterior-thigh: groin, adductor and wheel-.In congenital hip pathology observed asymmetry of their varying degrees of severity.
- outward rotation of the thigh, which is often combined with a certain laxity and excessive mobility in the affected joint.
- Symptom limit retraction is determined by bending the legs at the hip and knee joints at right angles, and then gently diverting them to a horizontal plane, which is typical for the absence of pathology.When dysplasia is marked limitation of abduction of legs.However, be aware that many newborns marked hypertonus hypertonicity : a sign of the disease muscles, which also can be manifested restriction exhaust.
- Symptom slip is one of the significant symptoms of congenital hip dislocation Hip dislocation - the result of indirect injury and manifests itself in tangible good or clicking sensation when sliding legs of the child abduction.
detection of at least one of the above symptoms the child is sufficient for his referral to a podiatrist, who appoints additional research methods, such as ultrasound and hip radiographs.
Treatment and prevention
Treatment of congenital hip dysplasia should be urgent.Depending on the stage can be assigned a wide diapering, allocating special tires, removable and non-removable gypsum.The range of therapeutic treatments included physical therapy, massage and physiotherapy.
Duration fixing abduction legs - one to six months, which, of course, is uncomfortable for the child and parents, but certainly a lot better surgical treatment, which is carried out when the impossibility of conservative treatment of late diagnosis.After primary treatment is conducted lengthy rehabilitation.
If treatment is not carried out, to adolescence develop significant violations walk that leads to a wheelchair.
It should be noted that certain types of dysplasia with mild symptoms are not diagnosed and do not lead to disruption of gait, revealed only when excessive load, for example, athletes, in adulthood.
therefore difficult to overestimate the preventive measures aimed at creating favorable conditions for the proper formation of the hip joint.
has long been observed that the eastern and southern nations, who accepted free diapering and carrying children on her hip with a wide leg breeding, pathology of the hip joint is practically not observed.Therefore, more orthopedists recommend to follow these principles and European women.