Leukemia in children - save early diagnosis!
Leukemia in children - not a rare disease.But with early detection and proper conduct adequate treatment for leukemia respond well to treatment.The main problem is that the disease does not always have some characteristic manifestations, creating difficulties in diagnosis.
Causes of childhood leukemia
leukemia - a blood disease associated with uncontrolled multiplication of immature white blood cells - blasts.Depending on which type of leukocytes (granular or nezernistye) affected, isolated myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia.In adults often develop myelogenous leukemia in children - lymphoblastic, which in turn can be acute or chronic.
deficient in normal adult blood leukocytes, a protective function, reduces the immune system of the child and frequent infections.A huge number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow disrupts the formation of red blood cells (anemia), and platelets responsible for blood clotting (developing increased bleeding).
causes of the disease are not fully understood.But many experts now believe that childhood leukemia is the result of chromosomal changes that have occurred in utero.Thus, the percentage of leukemia in children born to mothers who, during pregnancy were performed X-ray examinations, significantly higher than that of other children.Obviously, matters, and a genetic predisposition to the disease, as leukemia often occurs in children with a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down syndrome.
Contributing factors are a variety of electromagnetic radiation (from household appliances in the kitchen, computers and so on), exposure to chemicals (such as formaldehyde), ionizing radiationas well as various viral infections.
Acute leukemia in children
In most cases, the children developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and only 15-20% of cases - acute myelogenous leukemia.
The disease often begins with high fever, sore throat, tonsillitis.It is accompanied by headaches, pain in bones and joints, nausea, sometimes - vomiting, abdominal pain.After treatment the symptoms of the infection disappear, but the child remains lethargy, malaise, weakness, joint pain Joint pain - how to understand what is going on? .He has no appetite and is a rapid loss of body weight.Children with leukemia usually pale skin have bruises, point or more extensive bruising, bleeding gums How to prevent bleeding gums: important rules , nosebleeds.He continues to get sick often various infections.
Sometimes the first symptoms of leukemia Symptoms of leukemia - neoplastic diseases of the blood children are not so noticeable, but in any case the disease progresses quickly enough and requires prompt diagnosis.At the very beginning of the disease in children increases lymph nodes Lymph nodes - what keeps our immune system , often cervical and axillary.After the first infection, they can come back to normal, but then again there comes their now stable increase.The lymph nodes also increase in the mediastinum and abdominal cavity.Simultaneously, increased liver and spleen.
Acute leukemia in children under one year is more severe than in children from one to 10 years.In infants, the main symptoms of the disease can be intoxication: fever, vomiting, lack of appetite, and sometimes - seizures.
Chronic leukemia in children
Chronic leukemia in children usually begins unnoticed in the form of general malaise, lethargy, weakness, headaches, joint pain, frequent infections.Symptoms of leukemia in children of school age - is lagging behind in their studies, sleepiness in class and insomnia at night, frequent headaches, dizziness.
gradually appear enlarged lymph nodes (cervical, axillary, inguinal), pale skin, bleeding gums, nosebleeds, bruising and bruising on the skin.The child has a poor appetite, decreased weight, but it can be increased by increasing the stomach liver and spleen
diagnosis and treatment of leukemia in children
leukemia diagnosis is confirmed by the study of blood and bone marrow.In the blood, there is a huge number of child immature leukocytes, as well as a reduced amount of erythrocytes and platelets.
Depending on the type of leukemia, the nature of the disease and the general condition of the child is assigned the following treatments:
- Chemotherapy - administration of drugs, destroying blasts;
- monoclonal (Targeted, point) therapy - aiming the destruction of blasts using biological products;
- radiotherapy - the overwhelming process of dividing blood cells;
- bone marrow transplant from a donor - after the destruction of blasts carried out by means of radiation or chemotherapy.
With proper treatment promptly initiated leukemia in children can be cured in 70-90% of cases.