- Styles of family education: how to take a stand?
- Formation of the child's personality
Psychologists have long been interested in how parents influence the development of the child, because that parents have the greatest influence on his lifechildren indisputable.Understanding the parents of what children need to think how they need to learn and how they need to be nurtured, is crucial in shaping the future behaviors of growing children.Factors such as genes, environment, culture, gender, and financial position, are less important.
Studies show that there is a relationship between the parent parenting style and academic performance of the child in school, his sexual activity is likely to be involved in criminal activity, aggression, depression, alcohol and drug use, as well as its level of self-esteem.But
establish the actual cause-and-effect relationship between specific actions of parents and children's behavior is very difficult, because som
Despite these difficulties, the researchers found a strong relation between the style of family education and the influence of this style on the formation of the child's personality.In the early 1960s, it has been allocated four important aspects of education (family upbringing style options):
- strategy for creating and maintaining discipline;
- manifestation of parental warmth and care;
- way of communicating;
- expectations placed on the child
Based on these criteria, psychologists have suggested that most parents use one of the three main parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative and permissive.In the future, as a result of additional research, these three styles added the fourth - the indifferent.
For this style of family education is characterized by strict discipline and strict adherence to the child the rules established by parents.Parents give instructions and orders, while not paying attention to the views of children, and not recognizing the possibility of a compromise.In such families are highly valued obedience, respect and adherence to tradition.Rules are not discussed ("Because I said so (a)").It is believed that parents are always right, and disobedience is punished, often physically.Expectations of parents of children and their requirements are very high.Communication in the "parent-child" prevails over communion "child-parent".Since children avoid punishment constantly obey their parents, they become passive.Authoritarian parents also expect more maturity from their children than is typical for their age.The activity of the children is very low, as the approach to education targeted at parents and his needs and requirements.
Key Features Style
- set strict rules and high standards;
- placing high expectations for your child, but do not listen to his needs;
- restrained in expression of feelings, do not express the warmth and care;
- often resort to punishment with a minimum of explanation, or no;
- leave no child choice or freedom of action.
used by parents parenting style influences the nature and the various spheres of life, including its social (communication) skills and academic performance.
Children of authoritarian parents:
- believe that obedience and submission - the only way to earn the love and acceptance;
- some children exhibit aggressive behavior outside the home;
- not sure of his success, less balanced and less persistent in achieving goals, and have low self-esteem;
- often afraid or embarrassed to other people, especially strangers;
- they lack social adaptation, they rarely initiate any activities.
authoritarian parenting style, "for" and "against»
Since authoritarian parents expect absolute obedience, children who grow up in such a family, as a rule, very well able to follow the rules.However, while they may be a shortage or total lack of self-discipline.Unlike children raised by authoritative parents, children of authoritarian parents do not love and are afraid to take the initiative and act independently, so they never learn to set their own limits and personal standards.
Although psychologists-development experts agree that children need rules and regulations, the majority believe that authoritarian parenting too hard;this style lacks warmth, unconditional love and care needed by children.