Vaccination against diphtheria - the end of the epidemic of infection
vaccination against diphtheria was developed in the early twentieth century.After the introduction of mandatory immunization of children against diphtheria disease is able to completely eliminate.But in recent years there have been outbreaks of diphtheria - the disease affects mainly unvaccinated children.
vaccination against diphtheria - vaccines and toxoids
Diphtheria - a serious infection that affects most children.The disease is transmitted by droplet infection and is characterized by lesions mainly throat, larynx and trachea, often leading to the death of the patient.
diphtheria peculiarity is that the damaging effects on the body has not the infectious agent (diphtheria bacillus) and provide them with a toxin.Therefore, vaccination against diphtheria toxoid held.
diphtheria toxoid obtained by neutralizing toxins diphtheria bacilli formalin and heat.The toxin thus loses toxicity, but retain its antigenic and immunogenic properties, ie on parenteral administration induces a state of immunity to diphtheria toxin.As a source of toxins used culture filtrate diphtheria bacilli grown in special culture media.
for vaccination to children since the age of three, is used triple DTP, which includes pertussis vaccine this pest, pest whooping cough ... and two toxoid - diphtheria and tetanus.If for some reason the pertussis component is contraindicated child, entered a two diphtheria-tetanus toxoid - ADS.
Since the 6-year-olds conducted diphtheria toxoid booster Td-reduced diphtheria antigens.Available as a single-component diphtheria toxoid (BP) and diphtheria toxoid with reduced antigen content diphtheria (AP-M).
schedule of vaccinations against diphtheria
Children under 6 years of vaccinations against diphtheria held DTP:
- first DPT vaccination is carried out in 3 months;
- second DTP vaccination - 4.5 months;
- third DPT vaccination - 6 months;
- first booster DPT - 1 year 6 months;
- second revaccination (vaccination) against diphtheria and tetanus vaccine (Td) - 6-7 years;
- third booster Td - 14 years.
immunized against diphtheria vaccine for adults is held Td every 10 years.AD-M children after 9 years in the making when they received tetanus toxoid between boosters in connection with the emergency prevention of tetanus Tetanus - a constant companion of man (eg, trauma).AD-M is an adult if they have been vaccinated against tetanus, at least 10 years ago.Vaccinate adults should remember that vaccination against diphtheria and alcohol is not compatible because it is difficult to predict exactly how this combination will affect the immune system.
Where are vaccinated against diphtheria
All vaccines, which include diphtheria toxoid (DPT, DT, Td, AD, AD-M) make intramuscularly in the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks or thigh perednenaruzhnuyu.Adults can take a deep injection subcutaneously into the chuck area.
Contraindications immunized against diphtheria
DPT and DT contraindicated in progressive disease of the nervous system diseases of the nervous system - basic classification , seizures, severe reactions to previous administration of the vaccine, as well as the presence of acute diseasesor exacerbation of chronic diseases.
adult Td, BP and BP-M is also contraindicated in various diseases of the nervous system, cancer, immunodeficiency, as well as the presence of acute illness or exacerbation of chronic diseases.Vaccination against diphtheria during pregnancy is not recommended.
side effects of vaccination against diphtheria
vaccination against diphtheria is usually well tolerated and children, and adults.All responses to DTP connected, usually with pertussis.However, sometimes there is a reaction to the vaccination against diphtheria.Do individuals in the first two days after vaccination may develop short-term general and local reactions.
Common reactions (complications) after vaccination against diphtheria - a fever, malaise, and sometimes pain in the muscles and joints.One can not exclude allergic reactions such as urticaria, angioedema, and even anaphylactic shock.So after vaccination it is generally recommended to observe the graft within half an hour.
Local reactions to the vaccine against diphtheria can manifest as redness and swelling Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause of toxoid injection site.
vaccination against diphtheria is vital for all children.It was established that suppress outbreaks possible only with constant maintaining a high (95-98%) coverage of the entire population.If you do not, then we will return to the diphtheria epidemic and the disease can be cured by no means always.