Inoculation of premature babies - carried out on an individual schedule
Any vaccination in preterm infants carried on an individual schedule and depends on the general condition of the child, the state of the central nervous system, birth weight, the presence or absence of congenital and genetic diseases, birth injury Birth injuries -than they threaten your child? and so on.Also takes into account the risk of a child of a particular infection.
Features premature baby
considered preterm baby born up to 37 weeks.Typically, premature babies are also LBW, ie their weight does not exceed 2.5 kg and height - 45 cm. A viable today considered a child born at term pregnancy at least 22 weeks, and having a weight of more than 500 grams, but full-term babies sometimes havelow weight and height, whereas preterm birth can have normal levels of weight and height.
Whichever weight and height was not born a premature baby, they differ a reduced adaptation to extrauterine life, the immaturity of the central nervous system, a tendency to generalization (spread on the entire body) infections and any imperfection immunity.
Imperfection child immunity is mainly due to the fact that his body has not had time to do enough antibodies to various infections from the mother's blood.
on several grounds on the basis of examination of child doctor - neonatologist can draw a conclusion about the degree of prematurity (gestational age).This makes it possible to judge the degree of maturation of the baby of all organs and systems, and to decide on the possible behavior of his vaccinations.
Calendar immunization of premature infants
On the basis of examination and additional tests for a premature baby is offered an individual vaccination schedule.The most common vaccination schedule premature babies coincides with the national vaccination calendar, that is, all vaccines are given at the same time as the vaccination full-term children.Taps vaccination in preterm infants reduced as much as possible today because of the increased risk associated with the imperfections of the immune system and the possibility of severe infections.
However, for certain vaccines in preterm infants there are a number of contraindications.
Vaccination against hepatitis B
In accordance with the national immunization schedule vaccination premature children are doing in the first 12-24 hours after birth.The vaccination consists of three injections of the vaccine: the first day in the hospital, 1 month and 6 months after the first injection.Revaccination is carried out after 5 years.Prematurity is not a contraindication for vaccination against hepatitis Vaccination against hepatitis B - to do or not worth it? .
If a premature baby born to a mother, which is a carrier of hepatitis B virus, the vaccination scheme conducted 0-1-2-12 months.This will protect the baby from infection.In addition, it is recommended that simultaneous administration of human immunoglobulin against hepatitis B in a dose of 100 ME.Premature infants with a body weight less than 2 kg, born to mothers with hepatitis B virus carriers, should be vaccinated as normal children in the first 12 hours after birth.The vaccine is injected intramuscularly in the thigh perednenaruzhnuyu.
This vaccination is transferred, usually good, however, various general and local reactions.Local - a swelling and redness at the injection site, the general - a slight malaise, headache, dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet , and sometimes vomiting or regurgitation.All reactions were typically tested 2-3 days after injection.
for vaccinations in the hospital used domestic recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is an analogue of its vaccine Engerix British firm GlaxoSmithKline.
BCG vaccination in preterm infants
BCG vaccine is a live Mycobacterium strain BCG-1, which multiply in the body of the newborn, leading to the development of long-term immunity to tuberculosis.BCG vaccination of healthy infants at 3-7 days of life, re-vaccination of children aged 7 and 14 years old.Contraindication to vaccination with BCG is prematurity and weight of less than 2000
BCG-M is designed for gentle vaccination against tuberculosis.It is used for the vaccination of premature infants weighing 2,000 g or more, the restoration of the original body weight in the hospital the day before discharge in children weighing 2300 g or more in the care of premature branches before discharge, as well as children who did not receive TBvaccinated in the hospital for medical contraindications, and be vaccinated due to the removal of contraindications in children's polyclinics.
vaccine is injected strictly intradermally on the border of the upper and middle third of the outer surface of the left shoulder.Normally, after the introduction of vaccines in 1-1,5 months developing specific reaction in the form of papules the size of 5-10 mm in diameter, which gradually regress within 2-3 months, leaving a small scar.
DPT vaccination in preterm infants
Prematurity is not a contraindication for vaccination against pertussis this pest, pest whooping ... , diphtheria and tetanus (DPT).But the introduction of this vaccine is contraindicated in progressive lesions of the central nervous system that often occur in premature infants.Therefore, such children often injected vaccine Td, not including the most reactogenic pertussis.
Vaccinations premature babies up to a year doing individual schedule.