In recent years, the good old tempering increasingly called buzzword "unusual effect."But the point remains the same: exactly proved that, both coached defenses, that is, the body learns to resist colds and infectious agents.Especially important hardening procedures for children, immunity is not fully formed.
What is hardening, and why it is especially important for children
Hardening - a set of methods aimed at improving the functional reserves of the body and its resistance to the adverse effects of environmental factors (cold, heat, water, low atmospheric pressureand so on) by systematically coaching dosed these factors.
Modern comfortable accommodation, clothing, transport, reduce the impact of changing weather conditions on the human body and reduce its resistance to meteorological factors.
especially need to tempering for children because the younger the child, the less perfect the mechanism of his immunity Immunity - the types and characteristics of children in adult - the body's defenses that can cope with a cold, overheating, and various kinds of infections.
main factors tempering - air, water, the sun's rays.Combining them with exercise improves the efficiency of quenching.
How does the hardening of the body of the child
Systematic repeated exposure on the child of a physical factor (eg, cold) there is a reorganization of its metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things and several physiological functions, aimed at preserving the homeostasis (constancy of internal environment).This process is called adaptation.In the process of adaptation occurs improving all the physiological processes in the various organs and systems, increase the body's defenses.
When hardening of children should observe the following conditions:
- strength of the stimulus (eg, a cold) is necessary to increase gradually;
- reduce or discontinue the impact at the first sign of hypothermia;
- tempering procedures carried out daily, combining them with exercise myths about exercise: do not believe ;
- take into account the individual characteristics of a particular child in the selection procedures, as children develop unevenly, and tempering procedures can they act differently.
Practically the most important for the child is hardening cold as hypothermia - the most common cause of acute respiratory diseases.
established that when a person is frozen, the body initially compensates for the fact that included physical mechanisms of heat preservation: dilates blood vessels and the blood in large quantities supplied to the freezing places, warming them (for example, in the cold always redden the cheeks).If the cold continues to grow, in order not to hurt the internal organs, blood vessels constrict, and pale skin (especially noticeable with frostbite).If these adaptive responses is not enough, connect the chemical mechanisms of thermoregulation - increases metabolism improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting , allowing the body for some time to maintain the normal temperature of the internal organs.
established that heat buildup in humans, hardened to the cold, more than nonhardened, so it can last longer nonhardened cold.Hardening cold coached both physical and chemical mechanisms of thermoregulation.
How to harden children
Begin hardening of children with cold air baths in the room with the optimum air temperature: for children aged up to one year - 21-22˚, from one year to two years - 20-21˚from 2 to 4 years - 19-20˚, from 4 to 7 years - 16-19˚.Duration of air baths - from 3-4 to 10 minutes (the time is gradually built up).It is advisable to combine air baths with massage and gymnastics.
quenched action also provides children's stay outdoors.In winter, the baby should be a total walk in the fresh air at least three hours a day in the summer - more.In summer, walks can be combined with air and sun baths.Children up to one year in direct sunlight can not stand, they should be kept in light and shade, under the trees.The area of the exposed areas of the body while gradually increasing.
Tempering water begin within one to two weeks after the start of air baths.At the same time the water temperature is gradually reduced, while increasing the wetted area of the skin.Gradually moving from the local to the general procedures - wiping, pouring, soul, swimming in open water.
begin such procedures usually pouring feet and lower part of the calf at the water temperature 30˚, a week start to reduce the temperature at 1-2˚ every two days, leading up to 22˚ for infants, children up to 16-18˚from one year to three years and 14-16˚ for children 4-7 years.
common procedures for short-term (rubdown, pouring) with the water temperature 35˚ a week to start to reduce 1-2˚ every two days and left at 28˚ for children aged one to two years and 22-24˚ for preschoolers.
water treatments must end dry rubdown with a light massage to enhance circulation.
properly conducted hardening significantly reduces the incidence and improves physical and psychological development of the child.