Salmonellosis in children - what to do?
- Salmonellosis in children - what to do?
Salmonellosis - a fairly common infection that is usually transmitted through food.Her pathogens can live in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, eggs.Salmonellosis in children is not uncommon.
In the last two decades have seen an increased incidence of typhoid salmonellosis in Europe and North America.Perhaps this is partly due to the fact that people are increasingly traveling to and including, visit third world countries where the risk of Salmonella contamination is particularly high.In countries such as typhoid fever is common - a very dangerous disease, caused by a salmonella.For example, in India and Pakistan typhoid fever ill people from 40-50 million - is much greater than in developed countries.Worldwide recorded annually from 16 to 33 million cases of typhoid fever, and 500-600 thousand people a year die from the disease.
Not everyone in the body which gets salmonella, ill with salmonellosis.However, children, particularly breast, are most vulnerable to the disease because their immune systems are not yet sufficiently developed.
most common in children as in adults, there are gastrointestinal form of salmonellosis.Carriers of the bacteria causing the disease, can be chicken, beef, and some reptiles.Typhoid Salmonella - causative agent of typhoid fever, is carried exclusively by people and is usually transmitted through the feces of an infected person.
Symptoms of salmonellosis in children
have, in general, healthy children gastrointestinal form of salmonellosis usually occurs in mild and moderate forms.The incubation period for salmonellosis in children lasts 12 to 72 hours, that is, as time passes since entering the bacteria into the body before the first symptoms of the disease.Symptoms of the disease include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, headache.Typically, the temperature is reduced by no more than three days, while the other symptoms may persist for up to seven days.Salmonellosis in children under one year sometimes be severe, and causes severe symptoms that persist for a longer time.
When the disease typhoid fever, the first symptoms are usually the same as in the gastro-intestinal salmonellosis.But in the second week in children increased liver and spleen, and the pinkish appears characteristic skin rash.Fever and other symptoms of the disease when the disease persists for ten days or more.
consequences of salmonellosis in children
In most cases children suffer intestinal Salmonella infection is relatively easy, with no serious consequences for health.However, in some cases, gastro-intestinal salmonellosis Salmonellosis - especially disease in children can lead to the same complications that sometimes causes typhoid fever.The most severe complications of the disease include meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges , hydrocephalus, sepsis, intestinal perforation, myocarditis, abscesses, aortic aneurysm, and nephritis.Early diagnosis and proper treatment of salmonellosis Treatment of salmonellosis - Recommendations for all ages children dramatically reduces the risk of complications.
Causes of salmonellosis in children
Most often, children become infected with Salmonella as a result of eating products containing salmonella.These products include:
- Raw meat, poultry and seafood.Faeces, which contain salmonella, can get into meat during butchering animals or birds.The seafood Salmonella usually enters from contaminated water;
- Raw eggs.Eggshell seems reliable barrier against pathogens salmonella, but if the chicken is a carrier of salmonella, the bacteria penetrate the egg before the shell formation.Therefore, consumption of homemade mayonnaise and other sauces, which are used for the manufacture of raw eggs is considered unsafe, particularly for children;
- Fruits and Vegetables.For irrigation of fruits and vegetables, especially those grown in third world countries, it can be used by water contaminated with salmonella Salmonella: unknown facts .Infection can also occur in the kitchen, for example, if fruit and vegetable juice gets raw meat.
poor standards of hygiene while cooking is one of the main reasons that the salmonella in kindergarten is a frequent phenomenon, including in developed countries.
So, in 2013 in one of the kindergartens Irkutsk salmonella infected 27 children.In April 2014 salmonellosis was diagnosed in fifteen children attending kindergarten in Vologda.However, child care facilities in the European Union, the disease is also not shy away from.In 2012, ill with salmonellosis three kids who went in the younger group of kindergarten in northern Italy.One child, whose age was 2.5 years, required hospitalization.In May 2008, there was a well-known case of mass disease salmonellosis in Estonia.Then, in one kindergarten ill children 85 and 9 staff members, including one worker cuisine.
addition, some outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with the consumption of spices contaminated with disease-causing bacteria.Currently, experts in a number of countries are trying to decide how to improve the quality control of spices to make them safer for consumers.
Another common cause of the disease salmonellosis is a failure to comply with the elementary rules of hygiene.Children often touch their pets (cats, dogs, turtles), but also, for example, to frogs, which they can see in your garden or on a walk, and then put his fingers in his mouth, or eat with dirty hands.This may result in contamination of salmonella.