- How to help your child understand gender roles and gender stereotypes prevent
- Boys and girls
Because of gender inequality and discrimination as invisible and obvious to allboys and girls grow up, by and large, in two very different societies where they are subject to different requirements and expectations.Drinking surrounding him, parenting practices and behaviors of boys and girls are different, too.
In fact, it is about double standards: it allowed the boy to girl - shameful and indecent.This differentiation did not prepare them for the future joint and limits their potential, preventing the full development of the individual.Parents, teachers and other adults can help to change this situation, helping children to learn a variety of skills, constantly expanding their horizons and improve their social environment.Also useful would be to teach a child to the child's gender inequality, and to teach him to adapt to gender differences, understand and accept them.
To help the child to understand gender roles and gender differences and to avoid gender stereotypes, parents need to know how the formation of gender roles.The rudiments of differential socialization can be seen even before the baby is born.Parents want to know who will be born - a boy or a girl, after all of this is already a lot depends on how they call it, what kind of clothes, toys will buy as will educate.Gender is an important social variable and the parents are unlikely to be pleased if others would prevent errors in respect of the child's sex.
For three years children confidently identify themselves as male or female (the so-called "gender identity").During this period, children begin to notice that the men and women in different ways look different to engage in activities and interests of different things.Once the child begins to notice the differences between men and women, he has a special attention to the role models of sex, due to the desire to be the best boy or girl.Imitation can be explained by women's love grocery shopping and preparing for the holidays, and the reluctance of men to do it.As long as the child grows up, he sees that it is the woman deals with such cases, and if the child - a girl, it would interest her much more than if in its place was a boy.We must not forget that gender-role socialization - a process that continues throughout a person's life, it reflects changing circumstances and new experiences.
Throughout life's journey material for the formation of gender is a whole system of ideas about masculinity and femininity.Teachers, other children, other parents, relatives, toys and television - from all these sources, the child learns about the behavior that is regarded by society as appropriate to a particular gender.Experiments show that reading a book, the content of which can be traced sexual stereotyping leads to an increase in the proportion of sex-typical behavior in children's games.
Although recent studies have shown that the description of gender in books published after 1980 are sufficiently changed, but the library is still full of books published before this period.And they are usually dominated by male characters and women are portrayed solely as a homemaker, while men are given every opportunity.
important role in gender socialization role played by the media, because they always show us a stereotypical female and male figures.
Information pressures caused by the fact that, expanding our knowledge about ourselves and about the world, seeking to understand what the position should be followed in those or other social issues, we will increasingly rely not on their own experienceand on information provided by others.To determine what is right, we try to find out what others think right, but his behavior is considered so until seeing it in others.The same applies to gender roles.Television and books help children to form a gender expectations.Most children's television series and programs depict men and women in stereotypical gender roles, and TV advertising, which target audience is children, only reinforces gender stereotypes by showing only the boys with cars and guns, and girls - with the dolls, and is usually in pink.In addition, the male characters in children's TV series more than women (in the ratio of 5: 1), and they are shown as a factory, leading happening on the screen.Studies have shown that the more children watch television, the more likely that they will form gender stereotypes, they will try to meet the expectations of gender (that is, to behave like "should" male / female), as well as to participate in genderoriented actions.Children's books abound gender stereotypes.Male characters often appear in them as intrepid adventurers, strong, independent, smart and decisive, and female characters are depicted as passive, submissive and dependent beings homemaker.Moreover, the male characters are more important, and far more than the female characters.
During differential socialization is very great role of children's toys.Toys and games help girls to practice those activities relating to the preparation for motherhood and homemaking, develop communication skills and collaboration skills, encourage the desire to look good.Boys toys to encourage inventions, the transformation of the world, help to develop the skills that would later form the basis of spatial and mathematical skills, encourage independent, competitive and leadership behavior.Going to the store, you will immediately see that the majority of toys are designed for either boys or girls.According to statistics, adults buy more toys for small children, the typical sex of the child.It is natural to assume that this is due to the fact that boys and girls prefer different toys, and therefore ask you to buy them is blocked.But whether it is preferred the "natural" or to create a social environment?In this regard there are several hypotheses, one of them suggests that boys and girls have different initial innate predispositions, and start making over time, give preference to a variety of toys.But we can not exclude the possibility that by the time when the child begins to give preference to toys, typical of his sex, the differential socialization has already occurred.For five years I have shy children to play with toys, do not match their gender role, so often refuse toys associated with the opposite sex, thus reinforcing the gender stereotyping.Thus, there are many factors that influence gender-role socialization.