neonatal sepsis (sepsis newborns) - a serious infectious disease that can lead to death.Most often suffer from neonatal sepsis weakened and premature babies.The earlier the disease is able to recognize and begin treatment, the more hope for recovery of the baby.
causative agents of sepsis are most often hemolytic streptococci or staphylococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some other pathogens.Bacteria enter the body of the newborn before, during or after childbirth.Ways of penetration can also be different: mucosal skin lesions, respiratory tract, umbilical wound, gastrointestinal tract.If infection occurs during antenatal (prenatal) period, the source of infection may be present in the mother's body.
During pregnancy, any infection that is accompanied by fever, is a danger to the child.Infection usually occurs through the placenta: a child affected by toxins formed as a result of disease-causing bacteria.
Premature babies disease develops in about thirty times more likely than those babies who were born at term.This is due to the fact that premature infants are more sensitive to infections, they are not sufficiently developed defense reactions and barrier functions.The immaturity of protective systems leads to the fact that the body of the newborn can not localize the infection.In addition, one of the major causes of sepsis called immune deficiency.
At risk children as underweight, oppression respiratory functions and congenital malformations.Male babies get sick a little more often than girls.
symptoms of neonatal sepsis is infinitely diverse, so diagnosis is often difficult.In general, the clinical picture depends on which organ systems are affected child in the first place.By the initial signs may include weight reduction, the rejection of the breast, a common concern and a serious condition.The temperature in this case may not rise: in premature infants, it is sometimes even lower than the norm.
From the source of infection bacteria rapidly enter the bloodstream, the child's condition deteriorates rapidly, it weakens, becomes listless and indifferent.The skin is a characteristic yellowish-gray tint, with time yellowness increases.Especially suspicious appearance of jaundice in the second week of life.
With the development of new symptoms of the disease appear: vomiting, vomiting, diarrhea, swelling rapidly disappearing.Various bleeding (from the umbilical wound, nasal, vaginal, urinary tract).The skin rash.The spleen and liver are usually increased.From the nervous system possible convulsions, anxiety, apathy, sometimes - loss of consciousness.
course of sepsis can vary.Sometimes the disease develops rapidly, leading to septic shock and death.In some cases, such as in infants with immune deficiency, the disease can last for more than three months in subacute form.Septicaemia is characterized by rapid flow and general intoxication of the organism without the expressed local manifestations and foci of infection.If there septicopyemia expressed localized foci of inflammation - pneumonia, abscesses, meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges , osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis: severe inflammatory disease .
forms of sepsis
Early sepsis usually occurs during the first week of life.The infection in this case usually occurs even before birth, the placenta.In addition, infection may child during childbirth, especially in the presence of maternal genital inflammation.
Late sepsis is diagnosed, usually on the third or fourth week of life.Infection can occur during the passage of the birth canal and the baby after birth.
Another type of disease - the so-called "nosocomial" sepsis.Infection occurs in hospitals or hospitals.The most common causative agent of the disease becomes aureus, gram-negative rods are also dangerous and fungal infections fungal infection: to prevent and defeat .
Treatment Treatment of infected children is carried out only in a hospital, in the department of pathology of newborns.For the treatment of sepsis are usually used broad-spectrum antibiotics Broad-spectrum antibiotics - not only treat, but also mutilate .After the establishment of the causative agent antibiotic therapy is adjusted for the maximum effect of the treatment.
The recovery period used adjuvants.Good effect and have different physical therapy procedures.Children have recovered within three years seen a pediatrician, neurologist and other specialists, depending on the disease and on which organ systems are affected.
cure sepsis in newborns is not always possible, so doctors usually pay more attention to the prevention of disease.The main preventive measures include:
- prevention of infectious diseases accompanied by fever during pregnancy;
- observation by specialists during pregnancy, early detection of infectious diseases;
- treatment in pregnant all inflammatory processes, especially in the genital area (ideally should cure all inflammations before pregnancy);
- Observance of hygiene during childbirth and in the first weeks of life;
- Processing navel soon after birth and attentive care of the umbilical wound;
- Proper care of the skin and mucous membranes of the newborn;
- Early treatment of septic infections in newborns.