- Diphtheria - a phoenix, reborn from the ashes
- reasons diphtheria
Diphtheria - an acute respiratory infection or, less often, skin infection, which is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae andits toxin.This is a serious disease with a high mortality rate, even in Europe.
bacterium multiplies in the mucous membrane of the throat, nose, or throat and release toxic substance - toxin.
bacteria and toxins destroy the mucous on it formed plaque, the patient develops a severe sore throat.There may also be difficulty breathing, sometimes suffocation.
bacterial toxins penetrate into other parts of the body and can damage the heart and nervous system.
How is diphtheria?
diphtheria usually transmitted by droplets and contact.Diphtheria can be caught from a person who has no symptoms, but who is a carrier of the bacteria.
protection against disease is the immune Immunity - the types and characteristics of children in adult diphtheria - for this and m
Where there is diphtheria?
The bacteria can be found everywhere.But especially diphtheria is common in poor or densely populated areas, where many people have not been vaccinated.
In the early nineties in Russia and the Baltic States for more than 50 thousand people were ill with diphtheria.Later there were localized epidemics in Southeast Asia.In the West, the disease is rare, a diphtheria epidemic has not been since the forties, when there was a vaccine.However, isolated cases of diphtheria occur because the immune system does not have 100% of the population, besides, many people travel.
What are the symptoms?
The incubation period (the time between infection and the onset of symptoms) varies from two to five days.
Local symptoms include sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath.If the disease affects the skin, scabs appear like impetigo Impetigo - the scourge of kindergartens .Common symptoms - a slight fever, weakness, and fatigue.
After two to six weeks the disease can damage the heart and nervous system - irregular heartbeat and parlich.In the most severe cases of possible cardiac arrest.
In poor countries, mortality is high - up to 30-40%.In developed countries, the death rate of 5-10% - usually due to the fact that in the early stages, diphtheria can be mistaken for other diseases, so sometimes the right treatment begins too late.
How to avoid disease?
The most important way to prevent the disease - vaccination.
Babies do three vaccinations from 3 to 6 months (in a combination vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis this pest, pest whooping ... and tetanus).Then, a booster dose at 18 months, then 7 and 14 years old.It is believed that after this person is protected by about 10 years.
If you plan to travel to countries where the infection is possible diphtheria booster should be done every ten years.
How is it diagnosed?
to diagnose diphtheria, take a swab from the throat mucosa for sowing.
If the time to begin treatment, the likelihood of cure is high enough - the bacteria will be damaged, and the toxin is not time to do serious harm to the body.
Possible long-term complications - paralysis (especially facial muscles), heart rhythm disorders.
achieve the complete disappearance of diphtheria in the world difficult - especially because the bacteria can be transmitted to people who had been vaccinated and feel healthy.
How to treat diphtheria?
treatment is carried out in a hospital.To combat the bacterial toxin, a special anti-toxin.To win the bacterial, antibiotics are used.The patient is placed in quarantine.And the people in contact with them should be examined.They offer vaccinations and preventive treatment with antibiotics Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future? .