Psychotropic drugs and their effect on the brain
called psychotropic drugs that can change the levels of various chemicals in the brain and, therefore, affect the psychological state and behavior;With this capability, they are used in the treatment of mental illness Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help? .Psychotropic drugs include many groups of substances.
Although the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs are still not well understood, most experts believe that they block dopamine receptors in the brain that are extremely active in patients suffering from hallucinations, delusions Brad - not only crazy , and other conditions typical for a number of mental disorders.They are used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as irritability associated with autism.Currently, the most frequently used second-generation antipsychotics - they cause fewer side effects than the first generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol.
Antipsychotics may affect the metabolism improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting , often cause a slight increase in weight, and sometimes increase the risk of developing diabetes.Other side effects of antipsychotic drugs may be tremors, muscle spasms, anxiety and tardive dyskinesia - a chronic, sometimes - irreversible disorder in which a person observed involuntary movements of the arms, legs, tongue and lips.Although with the advent of second-generation antipsychotics tardive dyskinesia became rarer every year about 5% of patients taking these drugs, developing a violation.The most commonly used antipsychotics such as aripiprazole, clozapine, Risperdal, Seroquel, Solian.
Antidepressants Antidepressants are also to psychotropic drugs.They are used to treat various types of depression, which suffers from 7% to 8% of the population.Approximately one-third of them are diagnosed severe depression.
Today, the most commonly used class of antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors - a relatively new kind of antidepressants;products of this group act on serotonin levels in the brain.Other anti-depressants affect the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine - all of these substances affect the psychological state of man.The most common antidepressants such as Effexor, Paxil, Prozac, bupropion.
drugs for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Most of these psychotropic drugs affects the level of dopamine - a substance which is associated with pleasure and attention.The most common side effects of medicines of this type are problems with sleep and poor appetite.These medications include Ritalin, Adderall (which is composed of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine), methylphenidate and others.
Anxiolytics Anxiolytics - a psychotropic medications have a calming effect;often they called tranquilizers, although in reality the group includes not only tranquilizers anxiolytics, but other types of drugs, including neuroleptics.As a rule, anxiolytics can prescribe in generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder.Because of the risk of addiction treatment is usually short.Side effects of anxiolytics can also be drowsiness, blurred vision and problems with sleep, including nightmares.Anxiolytics are lorazepam, Xanax, Klonopin.
mood stabilizers or mood stabilizers, usually used to treat bipolar disorder, which affects, it is estimated that 3% of the population.The drug of first choice for this disorder is lithium.In addition it can be used Depakote, lamotrigine, carbamazepine.Mood stabilizers can cause side effects such as thyroid problems, weight gain, and suicidal thoughts.
opiates and hallucinogens
Opiates - a derivative of opium poppy, from which the as drugs, and drugs that quite legally sold in pharmacies.Opiates include morphine, codeine, methadone, heroin, and others.Prescription opioids are usually prescribed to relieve severe pain, which can not handle other analgesics.Depending on the dose of opioids may cause more or less strong pleasure then usually occurs stupor.In addition, their side effects can be nausea, constipation, slow breathing, and an overdose - respiratory arrest.Finally, opioids are addictive, so for therapeutic purposes can be taken only for a short time.
Hallucinogens, such as diethylamide d-lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin is not highly addictive, but their impact on the psyche can be dangerous, especially for people who already have mild mental disorders.
central nervous system stimulant
This group includes some psychotropic substances for the treatment of attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, as well as nicotine, cocaine, caffeine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as Ecstasy).These substances are in varying degrees, suppress appetite, increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, raise blood sugar blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health .