Epilepsy - is a common neurological disorder, whose main symptom is occasional seizures.She found, on average, one person out of a hundred, and in most cases appears in childhood, but can also develop epilepsy in adults and the elderly.
Partial seizures - the most common type of seizures that occur when damage is only limited area of the brain.There are simple partial seizures, during which the person is fully conscious, and complex partial seizures, after which the person does not remember what was going on the attack.
Signs of a simple partial seizure:
- Changing the appearance, smell, taste, sound familiar objects;
- strong sense of deja vu - as if all this had happened before;
- tingling sensation in the extremities;
- Sudden intense emotions Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code , such as fear or joy;
- Muscle tension arms, legs and face;
- Twitching one side of the body.
With complex partial seizures may also occur weird, pointless actions, such as:
- smacking his lips;
- rubbing his hands;
- unclear random sounds;
- Aimless arm movements;
- unusual, uncomfortable postures;
- chewing and swallowing.
In addition, during these attacks a person does not respond to external stimuli.About two in ten of all epileptic seizures are complex partial seizures.
Generalised seizures in most cases lead to that person on full time ceases to be aware of reality.The following types of generalized seizures:
- Absence seizures are often observed in children.Consciousness patient suddenly disconnected and usually no more than twenty seconds.The patient simply staring into space, no matter what does not react, although it may make some actions, such as blinking eyes.Such attacks may occur several times per day.They are not dangerous, but may affect the performance of the child.
- Myoclonic seizures cause jerks or limbs of a human body, as if it hit an electric current.Often they extend only a fraction of a second and the patient at that time remains in mind.Such attacks often occur in the first few hours after the man woke up, and can be combined with other types of generalized seizures.
- clonic seizures also cause muscle twitching, but it lasts longer, usually up to two minutes.Possible loss of consciousness.
- Atonic seizures cause sudden muscle relaxation, which is why the patient may fall.Injuries are a common consequence of the face of such attacks.
- tonic seizures, unlike atopic, lead to the fact that the muscles tighten sharply, because of what people can also lose your balance and fall.However, when such seizures often fall back.
- tonic-clonic seizures take place in two stages.First, the muscles tense up strongly, then the arms and legs begin to twitch.People lose consciousness, sometimes involuntary urination occurs.Typically fit extends from one to three minutes, but it can last longer.This - the most common type of stroke, which occurs in approximately 60% of people suffering from epilepsy.Tonic-clonic seizure may be called in a certain sense, "classical" epileptic seizure - that it represents the majority of people, when they hear the word "epilepsy".
- Status epilepticus - a lengthy seizure or series of seizures following one another for more than thirty minutes.This man regains consciousness in between seizures.
If the seizure lasts more than five minutes, you should call an ambulance.
In most cases the causes of epilepsy can not be established.Among the known causes most frequently mentioned brain damage.
are three types of epilepsy: Symptomatic - when the reasons for violations are known, idiopathic - with unknown causes, and cryptogenic - so called epilepsy, the exact cause of which could not be determined, but there is good reason to believe that it is caused by brain damage.
reasons for symptomatic epilepsy are diseases that affect the structure of the brain, such as cerebral palsy, abuse of alcohol or drugs, congenital defects, birth injuries Birth injuries - than they threaten your child? , infections causing damage to the brain, such as meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges ;head injury, stroke, brain tumors.In 60% of cases of epilepsy is idiopathic, that is, to explain why it has evolved, is not possible.
Triggers epileptic seizures can be stressful How to beat stress?Create an oasis , lack of sleep, alcohol abuse, drug use, the flashing light as well as diseases that cause fever.
The aim of the treatment of epilepsy is usually control seizures, but not all patients require treatment at all.If seizures are not very frequent and prolonged, and do not cause severe discomfort, patients tend to live a completely normal life, and do not take any medication for epilepsy.
If treatment is necessary, 70% of patients received antiepileptic drugs.They are typically administered after the second or subsequent seizures because of insufficient fit to determine whether a person is suffering from epilepsy.Antiepileptic drugs do not cure epilepsy, but reduce the likelihood of new attacks.
In some cases, it may be assigned to surgery - is possible, if the removal of the area of the brain where epileptic activity begins, will not cause serious harm to the health of the patient.If the operation is successful, there is a chance of complete cure of epilepsy.