Mental retardation - a condition in which the intellectual development of man does not match his age, and / or can not acquire the skills needed for everyday life.Generally, mentally retarded people can learn, but they do it much slower healthy people.There are several degrees of mental retardation - from mild to profound.
People with mental retardation, there are limitations in the following areas:
- intelligence - qualities that define a person's ability to learn, reason, make decisions and deal with problems.
- Adaptive behavior - a quality that includes the ability for effective communication and interaction with people and the ability to care for themselves.
level of intellectual development is determined by a test of IQ (IQ).The average IQ of 100 human settlements.A person is considered mentally retarded if his IQ below 70-75 points.
To evaluate the adaptive behavior of the person skilled in the art must be for some time to watch them, and compare the features of his behavior the norm f
suffering from mental retardation, approximately 1% of the population of our planet.In 85% of these people are diagnosed a mild form of mental retardation.Such patients slowly learn new information, but through proper training and support, most of them in the future be able to live independently, almost as much as the usual adults.
What are the signs of mental retardation in children
mental retardation in children can manifest itself in different ways and at different ages.The first signs of it appear in some still in its infancy, while others - only after the child reaches school age.The age at which the first signs of mental retardation, usually depends on the severity of the violation.Here are the most common symptoms of mental retardation in children:
- child later begins to roll over, sit, crawl or walk;
- late child begins to talk, and / or he has noticeable problems with speech;
- child much later than their peers learning potty, dress, eat, and so on;
- difficulty remembering simple things;
- Failure to link actions and their consequences;
- behavior problems such as frequent and severe temper tantrums;
- difficulties with logical thinking and problem solving.
In children with severe and profound mental retardation may be other health problems, such as motility disorders, convulsions, poor eyesight and hearing.
cause of mental retardation
Any violation of the normal development of the brain can lead to mental retardation, but to identify the specific cause of this disorder is not always possible.The most common causes of mental retardation are:
- genetic disorders such as Down syndrome or syndrome Martin - Bell;
- problems during pregnancy.Prevent the normal development of the fetus may use alcohol or drugs, malnutrition, infections, and certain pre-eclampsia;
- problems during childbirth.Mental retardation can result from the fact that for some time now in the process of child birth is not enough oxygen, as well as the fact that he was born much earlier period;
- illness or injury.Infections such as meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges , whooping cough or measles Measles in children - may cause serious complications , in some cases, can cause mental retardation.This violation can also cause severe head injuries, drowning, which led to a long lack of oxygen, prolonged malnutrition, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, as well as the lack of normal care and child abuse.
it possible to prevent the development of mental fatigue?
In some cases, it is possible.For example, the mother forces completely prevent the development of fetal alcohol syndrome, which may be a consequence of mental retardation.To prevent the development of this disorder during pregnancy, you should not drink alcohol.
adequate care during pregnancy, taking prenatal vitamins, timely vaccination against certain infections - these measures also reduce the likelihood that the child will have mental retardation.
If a personal or family history of one of the prospective parents have hereditary diseases before conception Conception, ovarian cycle, fertilization and genetics baby recommended to genetic counseling.
Some diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound and amniocentesis reveals a number of problems associated with mental retardation, even during pregnancy.However, to fix these problems is not currently possible.
What to do if a child diagnosed with mental retardation
If the violation has been identified at an early age, the child and his parents can work on language development specialists, psychologists and physiotherapists.They use methods that are not only to a certain extent promote the child's development, but also help parents learn how to deal with a child who has special needs.For mentally handicapped children of school age, there are special schools where teachers work with them with special training.
Parents who are raising a child with mental retardation, especially, need to learn more about this violation.This will help to understand what can and can not reach a child in the process of development, and take account of its characteristics in communion with him.
For most people, a diagnosis of the child is a great shock, and if you feel that you yourself can not cope with the stress How to beat stress?Create an oasis , be sure to consult a specialist.
- encourage the development of self-sufficiency in the child.He will learn to do the simplest things for longer than most children, and will make more mistakes, but this will have to accept.
- Communicate with doctors and teachers who work with the child and follow their recommendations.
- Meet other parents whose children have mental retardation diagnosed.They can become your indispensable source of information and psychological support.