amitriptyline - a medication to treat depression (antidepressant).It has a calming, antihistamine and analgesic effect, blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.Assign amitriptyline for depression, neuroses, psychoses, and certain other conditions.
mechanism of action of amitriptyline
Amitriptyline belongs to the group of antidepressants, tricyclic compounds.The mechanism of antidepressant action of amitriptyline is associated with inhibition of reuptake of cells of the central nervous system (CNS) of certain neurotransmitters (substances with which cells are transmitted from a cell nerve impulses) - norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.At the same time blocks the action of amitriptyline another neurotransmitter - acetylcholine.
This action gives amitriptyline painkillers, sedatives, antihistamines (allergy) properties.However, its main effect is that it is able to restore normal emotional background that is is an antidepressant - this effect is not earlier than two week
various pharmaceutical companies it sold under the name amizol, amineurin, saroten, triptizol, elivel and other tablets and capsules for oral administration in different doses (25 to 75 mg) and ampoules in a 1% solution for intramuscular and intravenous administration.
Indications and contraindications for use
Amitriptyline is used only on prescription in the following diseases and conditions:
- with depression of anyorigin, but it is most effective in that case, if the depression associated with increased anxiety;
- with mixed emotional disorders in combination with behavioral disorders;
- when fears (phobias);
- for bed-wetting in children (nocturnal enuresis) - if not reduced the motor activity of the muscles of the bladder;
- anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa - a neurosis with eating disorders;
- for chronic pain;
- to prevent migraine attacks.
- with severe diseases of the cardiovascular system - heart failure, myocardial infarction, heart block, high blood pressure;
- with severe liver and kidney diseases in violation of their functions;
- an exacerbation of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
- during tissue growth (hyperplasia) of the prostate gland;
- with reduced motor activity of the bladder;
- in violation of patency of the gastrointestinal tract;
- , while the use of antidepressants, MAO inhibitors relating to;
- during pregnancy and breast- Breastfeeding - a personal choice breast;
- children under 6 years;
- are hypersensitive to the drug.
wary amitriptyline is used in chronic alcoholism, bronchospasm, manic-depressive psychosis Manic-depressive psychosis - what phase are the most dangerous? , epilepsy, schizophrenia, diseases of the blood, low thyroid function, heart disease (angina), increased intraocular pressure.
Side effects often develop because of the suppression of the action of acetylcholine and manifest as dilated pupils, blurred vision, increased intraocular pressure, reduced salivation, constipation (up to intestinal obstruction), urinary retention,heat.Usually these symptoms disappear after a habituation of the organism to the drug or reducing its dose.
But there may be more severe side effects:
- of the central and peripheral nervous system - headache, dizziness, movement disorders (including motor excitation), lethargy, irritability, weakness, anxiety, tinnitus, disorderssleep, concentration, heavy dreams, speech, orientation, confusion, hallucinations, trembling of the limbs and body, sensory disturbances, convulsive readiness;
- the part of the circulatory system - heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, frequently changing blood pressure, symptoms of heart failure, syncope;
- the part of the digestive system - poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heartburn, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, taste disturbances, brown patches on the tongue, abdominal pain, abnormal liver function;
- hormonal disorders - increasing the size of the breast, discharge from the breast discharge from the breast - breast cancer exclude (including men), disorders of sexual desire, decreased or increased blood sugar Blood Sugar- a very important indicator ;
- Other side effects - a reduction in the number of blood cells and platelets, hair loss, swollen lymph nodes, weight gain during prolonged use, sweating, frequent urination, and allergic reactions.
When amitriptyline is used in high doses for a long time, when its cancellation may cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, behavioral disorders (withdrawal).
Amitriptyline - a drug that can be taken only on prescription.