Psychoanalysis from it to the superego
Judging from the daily life of citizens of the civilized countries of movies, series and television programs (and the majority of judges it is for these sources), you will find a curious thing.It turns out that any self-respecting, and not even too self-respecting resident of the United States or Germany simply can not live in peace if his list of cases per week will mean a visit to the psychoanalyst.Psychoanalysis in nearly a hundred years has become such an integral part of the Western way of life, which can easily claim the title of the modern opium of the people.So at least in general terms, to know what is a psychoanalysis is necessary.
Oh, this is a magical name - Sigmund Freud ...
Of course, first of all at the mention of psychoanalysis in the mind arises mysterious and somehow more frightening to the child times the name of the Austrian scientist Sigmund Freud.There are few people in the XX century, that the scale of impact on human minds could match, let alone surpass Freud.Classical start date of Freud's psychoanalysis is considered on July 24, 1895, when a scientist inspired by his own dream came to the conclusion that dreams play a crucial role in human psychology and are the most effective way to translate the language of the subconscious into the language of logical concepts.
fact, under psychoanalysis understood as a theoretical doctrine of total human development and mental mechanisms of neurotic disorders and practical psychoanalytic therapy, interpretive motivation and unconscious mental processes that appear during sleep or hypnotic state.However, after the rise in popularity of psychoanalytic therapy, the main focus in the public mind was made precisely on this side of psychoanalysis to explain the terms of the unconscious human behavior, fears and disorders and their treatment.Therefore, in the ordinary consciousness of psychoanalysis is largely limited thus visit a shrink.
However, no one alive psychoanalysis by Freud, among the classics and founders of this doctrine are such prominent scientists as Carl Gustav Jung, Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm and others.Jung and Adler were disciples of Freud subsequently diverged in their views with him and founded his direction of the theory and practice.For example, Jung created the concept of "archetype", implying the kind of mental structure that defines the contents of the collective unconscious and expressed in myths, dreams, fairy tales.At the same time, Jung, in contrast to his teacher Freud, the main goal of psychoanalysis did not see a direct intervention in the psychic life of the patient and the removal of the obvious symptoms of the disorder, and the strengthening of his mental immunity Immunity - the types and characteristics of children in adult qualified friendly advice.In turn, Adler regarded every neurotic disorder is not just as a form of mental life, but as an expression of weakness, which eventually was either caused by an inferiority complex inferiority complex - do not revel worthlessness , either directly ledthe appearance of the complex.
basic concepts of psychoanalysis
Despite the fact that the second half of the last century, the community of scientists and psychologists are increasingly loudervoices that psychoanalysis has outlived its usefulness, that it is practical and theoretical doctrine can no longer adequately reflect the diversity of the human psyche and what he did was based on a wrong position, this issue remains highly controversial.Many scholars continue to uphold the theoretical value of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic practice not only lost, but also, perhaps, strengthened its position.
Based on the general ideas of Freud, we can say that the human mind is inherently based on natural instincts, so-called "primary drive".The natural human tendency is to obtain the highest satisfaction in all areas of life.According to Sigmund Freud, the general direction of the human psyche defines an area in which the pleasure is expressed most clearly, that is, sexual life, sexual attraction and fantasy that he combined the concept of "libido."However, the external reality faced by people such dictates the conditions in which enjoyment whenever and wherever it is simply impossible, making the mind builds its own system of prohibitions and self-restraint.This natural instincts are so strong and deep, and external constraints on their displays so hard that the conflict between them leads to a chronic state of anxiety and depression, which leads to the emergence of mental disorders, neuroses.According to Freud, the essence and the task of psychoanalysis is precisely in order to rationalize the irrational nature of his human fears and show the way to the most complete removal of these contradictions in the case.
In accordance with these views were formed theory of human behavior, a set of methods for the study of basic human motives and methods of treatment of mental disorders based on the analysis of free association, expressing symbols of the unconscious.Today there are two main areas of practice: classical psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.In the classical version of the patient resorts to free association, he says whatever comes to mind, tells about dreams Dreams: how to understand our dreams transfer and feelings that arise in the course of psychotherapy.The analyst uses interpretation and clarification to resolve the internal conflicts of the patient.Much the same is observed in the psychoanalytic therapy, but the effect of the analyst on the inner life of the patient is less active and less stressed out.In this case, more attention is paid to aspects such as practical advice on the real problem situations, without going into the depths of the unconscious, as well as psychological support to the patient, creating a favorable background for solving problems.