Psychotropic drugs - a drug designed specifically to treat mental illness Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help? and found wide application since the middle of last century.A distinctive feature of psychotropic drugs is their positive effect on mental function, providing a positive therapeutic effect in disorders of the central nervous system (CNS).
neuroleptics or antipsychotic drugs called psychotropic drugs used mainly for severe CNS disorders, such as psychosis.The main mechanism of action of these drugs - effect on neurotransmitters - substances, which are transmitted via nerve impulses.Neurotransmitters can be different (noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and others), and they all have different effects on the CNS.
Haloperidol - neuroleptic belonging to the group of butyrophenones has a strong antipsychotic effect.The drug is a specific blocker of dopamine receptors, i.e. the transmission delay of dopamine nerve cells at synapses
drug has also expressed antiemetic, analgesic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and antihistamine (reduces the formation of histamine - the main substance of allergic reactions) action.Removes persistent personality changes, delirium, hallucinations, delusions, increases interest in the environment.It eliminates excessive motor activity, behavioral disorders (impulsivity, difficulty concentrating, aggressiveness).
Haloperidol is also the blockade of dopamine receptors of the hypothalamus - part of the brain responsible for the endocrine system.Therefore, long-term use of this drug is accompanied by changes in hormonal levels: by the hypothalamus in the pituitary gland (the main endocrine glands, influencing the work of other glands), increased production of prolactin (a hormone which is produced under the influence of breast milk) and reduced the amount of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, whose task is tostimulating the production of sex hormones.As a result, there are side effects such as increased production of breast milk, and decreased sexual activity.
Haloperidol is available in tablets and oral solution, the solution in vials for intramuscular injection.
Indications and contraindications for use
- acute and chronic psychosis (CNS conditions under which disrupted the orientation of the patient in the world around him) of different origin, accompanied by delirium Brad -not only crazy (actions arising under the influence of false inferences) and hallucinations (patients see, hear and feel what is actually there);
- in acute anxiety-depressive syndrome with excited (agitated depression);
- with organic (with a change in the structure of the brain) diseases of the central nervous system, accompanied by psychosis;
- in severe motor and mental arousal of different origin;
- when ticks, stuttering, long-lasting hiccups;
- chorea (a disease accompanied by involuntary movements of the muscles);
- nausea and vomiting, especially after surgery or chemotherapy;
- in preparation for narcosis (to enhance its effectiveness).
haloperidol is contraindicated:
- case of hypersensitivity to the drug;
- in disorders of consciousness of different origin;
- in Parkinson's disease;
- depression - long continuing depressed mood (aft agitated depression);
- in hysterical states;
- during pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- children up to 3 years.
C haloperidol caution is prescribed for severe diseases of the cardiovascular system, epilepsy, glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure), abnormal liver function and kidney function, increased thyroid function, breathing problems, an enlarged prostate with urinary retention, chronic alcoholism.
side effects of the treatment with haloperidol
When haloperidol may experience the following side effects:
- CNS: in the beginning - insomnia or drowsiness, then - movement disorder, tremor, increased muscle tone,headache, restlessness, anxiety, agitation, anxiety, euphoria (high joyful mood) and depression, seizures, convulsions, development paradoxical reaction - exacerbation of psychosis and hallucinations;
- from the gastrointestinal tract: loss of appetite, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, abnormal liver function;
- from the cardiovascular system: reduction in blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias;
- with the urogenital system: urinary retention, peripheral edema, pain in the breasts, gynecomastia (breast enlargement in men), menstrual disorders, decreased potency;
- the part of the blood (rare): reduction of certain types of white blood cells (agranulocytosis, leading to decreased immunity), anemia;
- with the senses: cataracts Cataracts - how to solve the problem completely? , blurred vision;
- allergic reactions: skin rash, increased reaction to sunlight rarely - bronchospasm and laryngeal.
- other effects: hair loss, weight gain.
In overdose all the side effects worse treatment - only in the hospital.
Haloperidol effective psychotropic drug Psychotropic drugs and their effect on the brain , which may be administered only by a physician.