- menstrual cycle and its characteristic features
- main problems
menstrual cycle plays an important role in a woman's life.According to the flow, duration and delay menstruation can determine violations of reproductive health, pregnancy and the beginning of the extinction of the reproductive function.Therefore, every woman should keep your calendar menstrual cycle to calculate the most favorable days for conception, or, conversely, "safe" days.
menstrual cycle (from the Latin word menstruus) literally means "moon" cycle.The menstrual cycle - a periodic change in the female body, aimed at the possibility of conception.Its duration is individual for each woman and depends on the physiological processes in the body of the woman, and does not depend on the phases of the moon.The average duration is 28 days, but can range from 21 days to 35. The beginning of the menstrual cycle is considered the first day of menstruation.
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cessation of the menstrual cycle
cessation of the menstrual cycle or menopause occurs on average at the age of 40-58 years.During this period, the extinction of reproductive function, and it also depends on genetic factors, chronic diseases or surgical interventions.But today, the concept of "climax" and "menopause" are becoming increasingly rare.More assumed the following terminology:
- premenopausal - 45 years before menopause;
- perimenopausal period - pre-menopausal and post-menopausal for two years;
- menopause - the last menstrual period, which comes to an average of 50 years;
- postmenopausal - begins after menopause and lasts until the death of the woman.
phase of the menstrual cycle
There are four phases of the menstrual cycle:
- follicular phase;
- ovulatory phase;
- secretory phase;
- phase desquamation.
follicular phase begins on the first day of the menstrual cycle days of the menstrual cycle: Four phases .At this time the maturation of the dominant follicle, from which the later will mature egg.The duration of each woman her own, from 7 to 22 days, and an average of 14 days.In the uterus at this time it begins to grow and thicken the endometrium, which is prepared to accept a fertilized egg.
the seventh day is determined by the dominant follicle, which continues to grow and secrete estradiol, while other follicles in this period undergo reverse development.This phase lasts three days, this is accompanied by the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), which under the influence of the dominant follicle bursts and the egg leaves mature.That is, ovulation occurs within 24 hours.In order to get pregnant, you need to calculate the day of ovulation How to calculate ovulation date: choose from five methods in advance, as long there is no egg and sperm remain viable up to three days.Therefore intercourse should occur in advance of ovulation, sperm managed to penetrate into the fallopian tube to meet with the mature egg.
luteal or secretory phase - is the period between ovulation and the onset of menstruation.The secretory phase is more constant and lasts 13-14 days.During this period he formed the corpus luteum, which starts producing progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology (pregnancy hormone), estradiol and androgens.During the secretory phase endometrial glands mature, proliferate and begin to secrete.If fertilization has occurred, then it is implanted already prepared endometrium.If fertilization does not happen, the corpus luteum is reduced (growing back), progesterone levels fall and menstruation begins.
Phase desquamation or menstruation lasts from three to seven days and is accompanied by uterine bleeding, during which rejected the endometrium.