Progesterone - norm and pathology


  • Progesterone - norm and pathology
  • What is progesterone

progesterone progesterone - a hormone that stimulates and regulates important functions, such as the menstrual cycle, preparing the body toconceive and maintain pregnancy.This hormone is produced in the ovaries, the placenta (in pregnant women) and in the pancreas.In addition to these features, it has a big impact for the libido.

Pituitary women in the reproductive age, produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to ensure the maturation of oocytes and their release from the follicle, which takes place every month.Developing follicles produce hormones - estrogen and progesterone, by which the inner membrane of the uterus (the endometrium) becomes thicker.In the second half of the menstrual cycle, progesterone levels rise, followed by a follicle ruptures and the egg goes down on the fallopian tubes into the uterus - are ovulating.From tissue remains in place torn follicle forms a yellow (luteal) body, which continues to produce estrogen and progesterone.

role of progesterone in the female body

One of the most important functions of progesterone is that in the second half of the menstrual cycle, it stimulates the production of a particular protein endometrium, preparing thus the conditions for the implantation of a fertilized egg and nutrition.If fertilization and implantation does not occur, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease, the endometrium begins to exfoliate and menstruation.

If pregnancy occurs, progesterone begins to produce the placenta;the level of this hormone is high throughout pregnancy.The combination of high levels of progesterone and estrogen Estrogen - the key to healthy bones Estrogen - the key to bone health suppresses ovulation during the whole period of pregnancy.Progesterone also stimulates changes in breast feeding woman to her unborn child.

high level of progesterone is considered partly responsible for the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as breast tenderness, bloating and mood swings.

absence of menstruation not related to the pregnancy is caused by disturbances in ovulation and the fact that, as a consequence, the progesterone level has not gone down.

Treatment progestogens

term "progestogen" refers to any hormonal product that has the same effect on the reproductive system, as well as progesterone.Effective synthetic substitutes progesterone called progestin, was launched in the 1950s.Micronized progesterone capsules became available a few decades later.

Progestogens and estrogen are the active ingredients of oral contraceptive pills and drugs that are used for hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms.

part of some contraceptives include progestogen-only;they also used in the treatment of various disorders, including such as abnormal vaginal bleeding and amenorrhea absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) - ambiguous symptom The absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) - ambiguous symptom (lack of menstruation);Endometriosis Endometriosis - a serious problem with serious consequences Endometriosis - a serious problem with serious consequences , breast cancer, kidney or uterus, lack of appetite and weight loss associated with AIDS and cancer.Progestogens are also used as an adjunct diagnostic checking the actions of estrogen.

control pills

Combined oral contraceptives (pills, which include estrogen and progestin) are blocking ovulation and prevent implantation of the embryo if fertilization occurs.These tablets generally need to be taken in a certain order;when the level of progestin pills reduced start menstruating.

part of some contraceptive contains only progestin (the funds are sometimes called mini-pills).They can not always suppress ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible? Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible? , but they make the cervical mucus thicker and hostile to sperm, preventing them from entering the uterus.These tablets also attenuate the internal mucosa of the uterine wall, which reduces the likelihood of successful implantation of the embryo.When used properly, the mini-pill only slightly less effective than combined birth control.

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