Diagnosis of pregnancy - is doubtful, probably significantly
pregnancy can be installed in various ways as the woman without a medical examination, and with the help of special tests, some of which can be used at home.
Most pregnant women will appear a series of symptoms, allowing to understand that pregnancy.Among the most common symptoms - nausea and vomiting, fatigue and weakness, craving for certain foods (including - previously unloved), which are usually not required, and frequent urination, especially at night.
There are also a number of clinical signs associated with pregnancy.The first of these typically occur within the first few weeks after conception.Although not all of them are universal indicators of pregnancy, a woman has a few of them leads to the assumption that the pregnancy.Among these signs: the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood and urine of the patient, delayed menstruation, weakness, bleeding spotting a few days after the alleged conception (it takes place, but not all women with the implantation of the embryo in the uterus, on the third orthe fourth week after the last menstrual period), increased basal temperature basal temperature - try to move less body, continued for more than two weeks after ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible? .
In addition, some pregnant women already in the early stages of the vulva, the walls of the vagina and cervix are slightly darker and softer than before pregnancy - these symptoms can usually be seen only specialist.Soreness may occur in the first trimester;This symptom is most common in young pregnant women.
The most accurate method for early diagnosis of pregnancy - a test for the presence in the body of hormones produced by the placenta began to take shape.CBC reveals pregnancy after twelve days after implantation of the embryo.A blood test at the same time more accurate than a urine test.Quantitative analysis of the blood to determine the approximate date.Home pregnancy test allows to establish a pregnancy after two or three weeks after implantation.
on postimplantation blastocyst stage starts to produce a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin, which in turn stimulates luteal body in a woman's ovaries to continue the production of progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology .This is to ensure that the inner lining of the uterus is not peeled off (this occurs during each menstrual cycle until the onset of pregnancy).In response to signals from the inner shell of the blastocyst cancer uterine wall increases, allowing the blastocyst obtained from the woman's body vital nutrients.
Even though the obvious signs, some women may not know about the pregnancy up to the most recent periods;there are cases where women are aware they are pregnant only when they began the active phase of labor.It may be associated with irregular periods (which is especially common in teenagers), taking certain medications (not birth control), as well as obesity, where women simply do not pay attention to the fact that added a few kilos.Sometimes women tend to deny their pregnancies - usually these patients have mental disorders and / or psychological trauma associated (but not always) a situation in which conception occurred.
With ultrasound you can quite accurately determine the time of pregnancy.In practice, doctors are beginning to consider the age of the embryo from the first day of last menstrual period of women.The exact date of conception can be determined only if the woman's sexual activity was limited, or if the pregnancy is the result of procedures used to treat infertility Infertility Treatment - What are the priority principles - such as in vitro fertilization.
During the period of pregnancy, a woman goes through a series of surveys that identify various diseases like herself and the unborn child.By analyzing blood establish blood group and Rh factor, determine the level of hemoglobin, and the presence of various diseases, including hepatitis B, HIV and others.Results of analyzes can prevent or mitigate possible complications during pregnancy or childbirth.
Ultrasonography has between 16 and 18 weeks makes it possible to establish the existence of child birth defects and to determine whether the fine is its development.Altogether during pregnancy usually spend three to four examinations using ultrasound.
Doubtful signs of pregnancy
Doubtful signs - a different kind of subjective feelings and objectively determined by changes in the body is the sexual organ: gustatory whims, changes in olfactory sensations (an aversion to smells that once liked), skin pigmentationon the face, the white line of the abdomen, in the area of the nipple and areola lines, changes in the nervous system (irritability, drowsiness, mood instability, fatigue), and more.
Probable signs of pregnancy
Possible signs - is objective evidence on the part of the genitals, breasts and in the formulation of biological reactions to the pregnancy:
- cessation of menstruation in women of childbearing age;missed period is an important feature, especially in women with regular menstrual cycles;
- breast enlargement and the emergence of colostrum nipples with pressure;
- change color (cyanosis) of the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix;
- change in size, shape and consistency of the uterus;usually the uterus is pear-shaped, with the onset of her pregnancy shape changes and becomes round and then asymmetrical (increasing one of its sides, which corresponds to the point of attachment of the ovum), in 2 months the uterus again becomes circular, and by the end of pregnancy becomes more elongated shapeoval;uterus also changes its consistency - is soft;in early pregnancy appears inflection uterus anteriorly due to softening of the cervix, as well as comb projection on a front surface of the uterus on the midline;
- laboratory tests (determination of human chorionic gonadotropin - hCG in urine and blood, it is also called the pregnancy hormone).
reliable sign of pregnancy
In the second half of pregnancy appear credible and unmistakable signs of pregnancy.These include fetal movement defined by hand or by listening to a stethoscope, listening to heart sounds of the fetus, fetal parts probing, more research data.
diagnosis of pregnancy is confirmed by auscultation of fetal heart rate, which can be determined as early as five weeks with the help of instrumental methods - ultrasound and electronic fetal monitoring.At about the 18th week of fetal heartbeat can listen to the ear or stethoscope.
laboratory methods for diagnosis of pregnancy
laboratory methods for diagnosis of pregnancy is based on the definition in the urine or blood of the woman human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) - a hormone that occurs only during pregnancy.Synthesis of HCG begins with the first days of pregnancy and continuing until delivery.
Currently, diagnosis of early pregnancy used immunological methods based on the ability of the body to produce antibodies capable of neutralizing the foreign particles (antigens) invading the body.To carry out this reaction takes the standard serum laboratory studies containing antibodies to hCG and eritrotsiny bearing the antigen hCG.If we add to them the urine of a pregnant woman having HCG, it will take the place of the antigen and red blood cells will remain unchanged, with the addition of a non-pregnant woman's urine red blood cells stick together in the antibody.
Currently sold in pharmacies test system for the rapid determination of the presence or absence of pregnancy that can be used by women themselves.
pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasound (US)
See pregnancy during ultrasound is possible in four weeks: deep in the lining of the uterus is clearly visible gestational sac diameter of about 5 mm, then it increases in size at a rate ofabout 7 mm per week for 10 weeks filling the entire uterine cavity.In these terms the fetus is already possible to discern the heart.In the I trimester of great importance is the definition of the diameter of the ovum and the coccyx-rump length (CTE) of the embryo - this size is determined by the duration of pregnancy.
In the early stages of pregnancy a woman usually look using a vaginal probe, through the abdominal wall is made at a later date.All pregnant women necessarily performed prenatal ultrasound diagnosis - a diagnosis of the state of the fetus by ultrasound, which allows him to eliminate the disease.
diagnosis of pregnancy is required to confirm - is the basis of proper medical supervision for pregnant women.