Amniocentesis - necessary but dangerous
Sometimes during pregnancy, for whatever reasons, there is its interrupt or some disturbance in the condition of the fetus.In order to accurately diagnose and provide timely assistance, in some cases it is necessary to analyze the amniotic fluid.Amniotic fluid obtained via amniocentesis.
What is amniocentesis and what is it used
Amniocentesis - a puncture (puncture) membranes.Used amniocentesis to obtain amniotic fluid for biochemical (composition of substances dissolved in the liquid), hormonal (composition and hormones), immunological (determined by the breakdown in the individual immunity) and cytological (cell composition of the amniotic fluid) research that will judge the statefetus.
Amniocentesis was performed on gestation of 14 to 18 weeks, but in the case of a suspected genetic disease or malformation of the fetus Fetal development - week after week amniocentesis can be performed in earlier periods.
applied amniocentesis and abortion in late pregnancy for medical reasons (for health of mother and fetus).In such cases, fetal bladder inserted concentrated salt solution, or some other medication.
- in the presence of phenomena of incompatibility of blood between mother and fetus;
- for the diagnosis of certain genetically determined diseases such as Down syndrome or hemophilia Hemophilia - a rare, but the disease sign ;
- perenashivanie for the diagnosis of pregnancy;
- to assess the overall condition of the fetus and the degree of maturity in the various complications of pregnancy.
When you can not do amniocentesis
Amniocentesis is contraindicated in the following conditions:
- when uterine malformations;
- in the presence of a benign tumor of the uterus nodes benign tumor - is not always safe (fibroids);
- at the location of the placenta on the front wall of the uterus;
- in any febrile condition or infectious processes;
- the threat of termination of pregnancy.
how to conduct operations
Amniocentesis performed obstetrician-gynecologist in the operating room.Before the surgery, using ultrasound, the position of the placenta to ensure that during the fetal bladder puncture it does not hurt.As a rule, puncture membranes through the anterior abdominal wall.The puncture site is determined depending on the location of the placenta and fetus.Recently, an amniocentesis is performed under the direct supervision of an ultrasound.
skin anterior abdominal wall treated with 5% alcoholic solution of iodine.Then, a pain management by introducing into the puncture Novocaine Novocaine - why it is so popular in medicine? , then make a puncture of the anterior abdominal wall, the wall of the uterus and fetal membranes thick needle length of 10-12 cm. In order to investigate into the syringe gaining 15 ml of amniotic fluid.
If the placenta is located on the front surface, an amniocentesis is performed through the vagina.After 36 weeks of pregnancy (should not be used to, since it is possible showdown membranes and development of labor), amniocentesis can be performed through the cervical canal using a special apparatus amnioscopy.
Complications during surgery amniocentesis
Currently, such complications are rare, because the amniocentesis is usually performed under ultrasound control.However, amniocentesis may be the cause:
- injured placenta - blood appears in the syringe;damage to the fetus, usually does not happen;
- opening membranes followed amniorrhea and development of labor (by careless amniocentesis through the cervical canal);
- development of inflammatory processes in the fetal membranes.
Laboratory examination of amniotic fluid
amniotic fluid contains fetal cells, which are subsequently grown in special media for 2-4 weeks, as the cell is usually enough for the study.The cells are then examined for the presence of fetal genetic abnormalities, and in case of detection of such anomalies (eg, Down syndrome) woman should have an abortion.
Laboratory examination of amniotic fluid may also reveal the degree of maturity of the lungs.To do this, determine the amount of surfactant - specific substances secreted by cells of the lungs and are necessary for normal breathing immediately after birth.
biochemical, immunological and hormonal composition of the amniotic fluid can correctly predict the development of the pregnancy and birth of a healthy baby.
If the doctor offers to do an amniocentesis, it means that there is a need, and the procedure is carried out for in order to be sure that you have a healthy baby is born.