placenta - an organ, equally owned by mother and child.She did not immediately, but after its fabric will be formed, it will assume all the work necessary to ensure the development of the fetus and for the removal of substances from the mother's body of metabolic products of the fruit.The placenta protects the fetus from infection, missing his body antibodies from the mother's blood.The placenta or afterbirth - a temporary organ formed during pregnancy and provides a link with the mother of the fetus.
mature placenta looks like a disk with a diameter of about 20 cm and a thickness of 3 cm and weighing about a pound (or a little less than 1/5 of the weight of the fetus).The placenta is limited to two plates - chorionic and basal, between which there are chorionic villi (fetal outer shell, covered with hairs that grow into the uterine lining, participating in the formation of the placenta) and intervillous space.By the fetal surface of the placenta is attached umbilical cord and radiating vessels.
Normally, the placenta is often in the mucosa of the posterior wall of the uterus.Fully placenta is formed by the end of the 12th week of pregnancy, and then its structure is changing, adapting to the needs of the growing fetus.On the fifth month of pregnancy there is an increase in weight of the placenta, and a month before the birth she reaches full maturity.
placenta metabolize improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting between mother and fetus, serving as gas exchange, trophic, endocrine, excretory and protective, has immunogenic properties.Placenta is not only common, but also shares the genetically heterogeneous organisms of mother and fetus, preventing the occurrence of an immunological conflict between them.
- gas exchange function is to carry oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide.Oxygen from the maternal blood enters the blood stream by penetrating the fruit, in the opposite direction is transported carbon dioxide.
- trophic function - is the transport of proteins, fats and carbohydrates from the mother to the blood of the fetus.The fetus through the placenta receives nutrients, metabolic products come back (excretory function).
- endocrine function.The placenta is an endocrine gland that secretes hormones that promote the development of adaptive changes in a woman's body, essential for the growth and development of the fetus.
- chorionic gonadotropin, which supports the functional activity of the placenta and stimulate the production of large amounts of progesterone by the corpus luteumovary;This hormone is also called the pregnancy hormone, it begins to produce in the first weeks of pregnancy, reaching a maximum of 12 weeks, after which it decreased and the number disappears from the blood of a woman in a week after giving birth;
- placental lactogen - promotes the maturation and development of the mammary glands during pregnancy and in their preparation for feeding the baby Breastfeeding - a personal choice breast;
- prolactin - contributes to the development and release of breast milk;
- progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology - during pregnancy it prevents the maturation of new eggs and rejection of the mucous membrane of the uterus, stimulates the growth of mammary glands, inhibits the contractile activity of the pregnant uterus;
- estrogen - cause overgrowth of uterine lining, help to strengthen the muscle of the uterus before delivery.
protective function of the placenta is the placenta is permeable to maternal antibodies Antibodies - "soldiers" immunity to infections, providing immunological protection of the child, not only during pregnancy, but also in the first months after birth.The "smart" placenta prevents the occurrence of immune conflict between organisms of mother and child - immune cells mother, recognizing a foreign object could cause rejection of the fetus.
What are the pathological changes can occur in the placenta
There improper location of the placenta and its attachment.Serious complication for the mother and the fetus is premature detachment of normally situated placenta.
Under the influence of infection or fetal discharge (meconium) in the placenta can occur inflammatory process (the placenta).Most often infection occurs through the cervix of the uterus, it may also be a viral infection (e.g., with influenza).This inflammation can lead to infection of the fetus, fetal development of malnutrition (underweight) and hypoxia (oxygen starvation).When
late toxicosis of pregnancy may change the lumen of blood vessels of the placenta, which is why it is reduced in size, which necessarily affects its functions and, therefore, the condition of the fetus.
Sometimes the placenta develop tumors more often they are vascular in nature (hemangiomas) and are diagnosed after the birth of the placenta.
placenta - a miracle of nature, the mechanism by which there is a complete "service" and the protection of the child in the mother's body.