Rhesus conflict - possible serious complications
Probably many of us have heard of such pregnancy complications as Rhesus-conflict, but clearly not everyone imagines that it is, in some cases, it appears, and how to avoid it.To understand these issues, we first consider "under the microscope" of well-known structure of red blood cells, the most blood cells, which provide the body of oxygen.The fact that the surface of these beads is replete with red protein structures, which are called antigens in medicine.
Some of them are responsible for the blood group, the other determining whether a person is Rh-positive or Rh-negative.They are called Rh factor, and information about their presence or absence is often observed in the passport as a Rh (+) or Rh (-).The presence in the body of the Rh factor is determined by simple laboratory methods (so-called agglutination) within just a few minutes.
About 85% of people are Rh positive, with noticed an interesting feature: among the people Blacks no Rh-negative.The name of the Rh factor received from the rhesus monkey, which the antigen was detected for the first time.
In determining the Rh accessories unborn child are also important features of inheritance and Rh factor.Since each hereditary trait contains two genes (one from the mother, the other from the father), the Rh factor can be represented by any two genes Rh (+), or one Rh (+) and one of Rh (-), or two Rh (-).In the first two cases, the child is Rh-positive, in the latter case it is rhesus negative.
Having clarified these anatomical and genetic characteristics, we can understand why pregnancy appears rhesus conflict.After all, if the body is Rh-negative mothers develop a child receives the gene from the father Rh (+), in the blood of the child's red blood cells appear to Rh antigen.This Rh immune system immune system - how it works? mother - a foreign protein agent with whom he had never met, which means that the body must be cleansed from strangers "invaders."Thus, without even wanting to, my mother begins to produce its own immunity against the child, which causes Rhesus-conflict.When the antibodies attack red blood cells embryo, on the surface, and which are alien to the parent body's protein structures.As a result of this attack, the erythrocytes are destroyed, resulting in hemolytic anemia fetus (hemolysis - the destruction of erythrocytes).In the end, it ends the development of severe diseases of internal organs kid (liver, spleen, brain, etc.) Due to a sharp lack of oxygen at high risk of fetal death and miscarriage Miscarriage - whether it can be insured? .
To avoid such complications woman with Rh-negative (if the father is Rh-positive child) must be examined in the titer of antibodies against the Rh factor, with increasing gestation, the most should be the survey.As a rule, the first pregnancy, Rh-conflict is not observed, but its probability increases dramatically with each subsequent pregnancy, so in the next three days after childbirth, women must enter the specific Rh immunoglobulin.These preventive measures are guaranteed to prevent the development of Rh-conflict during the next pregnancy.
If blood blood test: the mirror of health speak about the growth of antibody titer antibodies - "soldiers' immunity against the Rh factor, an urgent need to use therapeutic measures, the main of which is the use of immunosuppressive drugs andif necessary, intrauterine transfusions.In the umbilical vein are administered 30 - 50 ml of the donor RBC.Puncture takes place under the control of ultrasound.Transplantation of fresh red blood cell mass makes it possible to extend up to 38 weeks of pregnancy, when the child becomes completely viable outside the womb.
best prevention of Rh-conflict - is the previously mentioned introduction of specific immunoglobulin within the next three days after birth.Similar prevention is also needed in the uncompleted pregnancy (miscarriage, abortion), injury of a pregnant woman, procedural manipulation of the fetus shells.