Multiple pregnancy - what dangers of gestation of twins?
Twins - the phenomenon is not so rare, but three, four or more babies are born at the same time - this is a rarity.Many people say - a freak of nature.Despite the visual appeal (to give birth just two - it's great!) In such a lurking danger of pregnancy for both mother and child.Therefore, a woman with multiple pregnancies should punctually perform all the doctor's instructions.
What is multiple pregnancy and its causes
Multiple pregnancy - a pregnancy occurring with the development of two or more fetuses.The most common are twins.Among the causes of multiple pregnancy is not the last place is occupied by heredity: there are families in which the generations are born twins and triplets.
Multiple pregnancy may occur during fertilization two (three, and so on), and then the eggs develop fraternal twins.But sometimes a single fertilized egg develops two fruits - is identical twins, who have absolute similarity.
fertilized egg and its structure
in multiple pregnancies every fertilized egg after the introduction of the mucous membrane of the uterine wall forms its shell, from which later forms the placenta from an independent network of blood vessels.Do identical twins If you have twins, ten Smiles be one common shell (amnion) or individual shell for each fetus.
About whether twins are monozygotic or dizygotic judged by the results of the examination of the placenta (afterbirth).For dizygotic twins are characterized by individual or contiguous placentas partition Mezhuyev sac (amnion) is they have four layers.For monozygotic twins shared a placenta is typical, and the partition consists of two layers.
Multiple pregnancy may proceed normally, but can often be complicated and spontaneous abortion, premature birth and toxicosis.Even with uncomplicated pregnancy, a woman may appear fatigue, shortness of breath, frequent urination, constipation Constipation - Watch out for food - all because of a significant increase in the size of the uterus.
fetal development usually uniform, their difference in weight is small.But sometimes it may appear pronounced unevenness of development associated with the presence of anastomoses (bridge) between the vessels of the placenta of the fruit.With varying intensity cardiac blood supply to the fruit of one of them better, because that will be the fruit of a second behind in development and may even die.Sometimes the fruit in the form of the formless formation detected during labor (the so-called "paper" the fruit).When monozygotic twins, located in one amnion possibly having children with developmental disabilities in the form accrete twins.
Location fetuses in the uterus during a multiple pregnancy may be different, but most often, both are the fruit lengthwise and cephalic presentation (head down).There are other options.
Before the advent of ultrasonography (US) fetal diagnosis of multiple pregnancy in the early stages it was difficult to deliver.But at the moment this diagnosis is not difficult, because the US has 2.5 weeks of pregnancy is clearly visible heartbeat of each fruit.
Genera Genera in multiple pregnancies usually occur vaginally and often occur normally.After the disclosure of the cervix is born first one fruit, then another.
But sometimes occur during childbirth and complications delayed rupture of membranes, uterine inertia forces due to distension of the uterus, hypoxia (insufficient oxygen supply to tissues) of the fetus, premature detachment of the placenta after the birth of the second fetus first, belated second fetal membranes rupture, bleeding.
Help during labor in multiple pregnancies
for regulation of uterine activity and labor analgesia used antispasmodics (drugs, relieves spasms of smooth muscles of internal organs, including the uterus).
bag of water first fetus is opened, carefully and slowly release the amniotic fluid.The period of the expulsion of the fetus first lead expectantly, trying to do everything in a natural way.But when complications arise with the mother or fetus accelerate the process by using various techniques (eg, forceps).
During the birth of the second fetus and expectant tactics.After 10-20 minutes after the birth of the first fetus usually reveal a second fetal bladder and give birth the natural flow and, if necessary, apply special obstetric techniques.
Born This will be followed carefully examine in order to determine their integrity (remaining in the uterus may bleed piece) and to determine their mono- or dizygotic origin.
Prevention of complications during a multiple pregnancy
Pregnant women with multiple pregnancy require careful monitoring in a maternity clinic.At complicated pregnancy (for example, toxicity and risk of miscarriage), a woman should be directed to the department of pathology of pregnancy, maternity hospital for necessary treatment.