- bradycardia - when the heart stops
- cardiac conduction system
- Diagnosis Treatment
bradycardia - a disorder characterized by a reduced heart rate.Considered normal heart rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.If bradycardia it is less than 60 beats per minute.
bradycardia can be a serious problem if the heart does not supply the body with enough oxygen-rich blood.However, for some people it is a violation causes no symptoms and serious complications.
What is bradycardia
There is fetal bradycardia - reduced heart rate of the fetus.The lower threshold of a normal fetal heart rate to 6.2 weeks of pregnancy is 100 beats per minute, at a later date - 120 beats.Generally, fetal bradycardia diagnosed if the average heart rate is less than 110 beats per minute.At the same time the fetus can be seen as a sine bradycardia, bradycardia caused by heart block or other types of disorders, which are usually diagnosed in adults.
Heart rate controlled by a special electrical
a healthy person, the pulse rate of an average of 60-80 beats per minute.Considered normal heart rate to 100 beats per minute.With such a heart rate can pump during one minute to five liters of blood, saturating it, and hence the entire body with oxygen.If the heart beats too slowly, the volume of blood that the heart can pump over time, diminish the body gets less oxygen, appear lethargy, shortness of breath, drowsiness, and other very unpleasant symptoms of bradycardia.
low heart rate - it is not always a sign of disease.In a dream, in a healthy person the pulse drops to 40-50 beats per minute.Young people with a very high level of physical fitness resting heart rate may be 30-40 beats per minute, and during exercise or competition of their heart can operate at speeds of up to 180 beats per minute, and that's perfectly normal.At the famous cyclist Miguel Indurain at the peak of his career, the heart rate at rest was reduced to 28 beats per minute.He won five times in the Tour de France and other prestigious cycling.However, if a person, for example, climbing stairs, his heart rate is 30-50 beats per minute, it feels weak and tired after a short exercise - these are signs of bradycardia.Chance of bradycardia is especially great for people over 65, but it also occurs in young people and children - especially those who have had heart surgery.
Symptoms Generally, symptoms of bradycardia related to insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues of the body.The most common symptoms of bradycardia:
- lightheadedness or fainting Dizziness
- Weakness Fatigue Shortness of breath
- Pain in the heart
- Confusion and memory problems
heart rate at rest for some peopleis the norm - especially for healthy young people and athletes.
symptoms of bradycardia may be caused by many disorders.If their appearance is very important as soon as possible to make the correct diagnosis and start appropriate treatment.If slow pulse is accompanied by symptoms such as shortness of breath and pain in the heart pain in the heart - always consult a physician , and they persist for a few minutes, you should seek immediate professional help.
tend to cause bradycardia are the factors that disrupt the heart's electrical system.Among them:
- heart tissue damage associated with the aging process
- heart tissue damage due to heart disease or heart attack
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- Congenital disorders associated with the work of the heart (such as congenital heart disease)
- tissue infection of the heart (myocarditis)
- complication of heart surgery
- decreased activity of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)
- imbalance of electrolytes, minerals, necessary for carrying out the electrical impulses in the heart
- Obstructive sleep apnea Dreams: howunderstand our dreams (repeated violation or complete cessation of breathing during sleep)
- inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism or lupus
- hemochromatosis, iron accumulation in organs and tissues
Taking certain medications, including some drugs used to treat othercardiac arrhythmias, high blood pressure and psychosis.
heart consists of two chambers - two upper (atria) and two lower (ventricles).The normal rhythm of the heart controls the sinus node, located in the right atrium.It produces electrical impulses, which begins with each heart beat.
Coming out of the sinus node, the electrical impulse passes through the atrium, making them contract and pump blood into the ventricles.Then, an electrical impulse gets to the cluster of cells called the atrioventricular node
(AV node).AV node transmits a signal to a specific clusters of cells - bundle branch block, through which it enters the ventricles.When you receive an electrical pulse ventricles;from the right ventricle venous blood (with little or no oxygen) to the lungs, and from the left - oxygen-rich blood into the bloodstream and disperses throughout the body.
bradycardia occurs when electrical signals are sent too slow, or when they are moving, for whatever reasons, is blocked.
problems with sinus node
bradycardia often begins with a problem in this part of the heart.They may develop because the sinus node:
- produces electrical impulses more slowly than necessary
- produces electrical pulses irregularly
- generates pulses that are blocked to reduce atrial
Some patients malfunctioning sinus node can cause alternating periods,when the heart is too slow, too fast (tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome).
Antrioventrikulyarnaya heart block
This type of heart block, in which impaired impulse conduction from the atria to the ventricles of the heart.There are the following antrioventrikulyarnoy degree heart block:
- Heart block of the first type - the mildest form of violation, in which all electrical impulses from the atria reach the ventricles, but it is slower than usual.The initial degree of blockade antriovuntrikulyarnoy rarely causes any symptoms and do not require treatment unless the patient does not have any other problems with conduction of impulses.
- Heart block second degree.In this disorder, not all pulses reach the ventricles, causing the heart rate decreases, and sometimes pulse becomes uneven.
- Heart block third degree, or complete blockade causes the electric impulses that do not fall into the ventricles, atria tissue and begin to perform the function of a kind of the pacemaker.As a consequence, the atrium is obtained load for which they were not originally designed, and the heart rate slows down significantly.
bradycardia - risk factors
addition to the main causes of bradycardia, there are several factors that increase the likelihood of developing this disorder:
- Age - the older the patient, the greater the likelihood of developing bradycardia, and the more often you needundergo a medical examination;
- High blood pressure;
- Elevated cholesterol;
- Alcohol abuse;
- drug use;
- Chronic stress How to beat stress?Create an oasis and / or anxiety anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease? .