Thyroid Cancer and Pregnancy - not such a rare combination
Female reproductive system and thyroid gland is closely linked single "control center": the cerebral cortex - the hypothalamus - pituitary gland.This system supports and controls using its own hormones function of sexual organs and the thyroid gland.In turn, the latter can also have an impact on your "command center."And any changes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland lead to disturbances in their regulatory systems.
Influence of thyroid gland in the female reproductive system, including during pregnancy
established that thyroid hormones, female sex hormones, hormones of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can mutually influence each other.Thus, in hypothyroidism decreases the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) pituitary gonadotropin, which regulates the second phase of the menstrual cycle, including the secretion of the female hormone progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology .Reduced thyroid function may lead to changes in the menstrual cycle, infertility, miscarriages and premature births.
pregnancy has significant effects on the thyroid gland.For a stimulating effect on the thyroid gland has the pregnancy hormone - human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is structurally similar to thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary (TSH).Under the action of the hormone thyroid tissue growing (tissue proliferation).In addition, the proliferation of thyroid tissue can cause estrogen.This causes diffuse (all tissues) enlargement of the thyroid gland.
All these processes lead to an increase in the secretion of thyroid hormones in the first trimester of pregnancy, which can manifest itself in the appearance of a woman irritability Irritability - Try to control your mood , palpitations, high blood pressure and so on.Already in the second trimester thyroid hormone levels can bounce back, as the number of hCG in the blood gradually decreases, this leads to the formation of some women of hypothyroidism, which is dangerous to the fetus - a lack of thyroid hormone may impair brain function.
With such significant changes in the thyroid gland during pregnancy reduces its reserve compensatory abilities, which leads to the formation of the enlarged prostate tissuenodes, which structure may appear abnormal (cancerous) cells.
Thus, the reproductive function of women is closely related to the function of the thyroid gland.And since thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer: it is curable occurs more frequently in women of reproductive age, and in pregnant women it is not uncommon.It was established that in this age of the women developed mainly differentiated (milder) thyroid cancer.
Thyroid cancer during pregnancy
In recent years, the incidence of thyroid cancer during pregnancy has increased in all the countries that seem to be associated with one hand with the improvement of detection of the disease in its early stages, andother - with increasing background radiation environment.
differentiated forms of thyroid cancer usually occur in the early stages of symptoms as a function of the gland is not disturbed.This may well come a pregnancy.Thyroid cancer may begin during pregnancy due to violation of compensatory possibilities cancer, iodine deficiency and high radiation environment.
is therefore important to detect and treat this disease.Pregnant women performed ultrasound of the thyroid gland and identify it, even small nodules (1 cm) - aspiration biopsy, which allows to establish the nature of these nodules and exclude thyroid cancer.
undiagnosed thyroid cancer respond well to treatment, while women try to maintain reproductive function.
peculiarity of differentiated thyroid cancer is its slow growth, which in most cases for small sites to continue the pregnancy.It was also found that the changes that occur in the thyroid gland during pregnancy, do not have a stimulating effect on the growth of thyroid cancer.Differentiated cancer also no adverse effects on pregnancy.
First of all, the question of a possible continuation of the pregnancy.It can be saved if the node is small and examination revealed a differentiated form of cancer - a tumor composed of cells similar to the cells of the thyroid gland (the more different tumor cells from the tissue from which they were formed, the more dangerous the tumor).
During the survey have to be set taking into account the stage of the disease degree of proliferation of the primary tumor and its metastases in the lymph nodes nearby Lymph nodes - what keeps our immune system , metastasis to distant organs and tissues age and pregnant women (under the age of 45years for thyroid cancer favorable).
In identifying a woman differentiated thyroid cancer stages I and II, surgical treatment during the second trimester of pregnancy, when the tumor was discovered in the third trimester, treatment should be deferred until delivery.For large tumors grow into nearby organs or giving metastases, pregnancy is terminated and carried out a complete treatment.