Nutrition during pregnancy - a pledge of normal development of the fetus
with food into the body of a pregnant woman receives substances that build the body of the child and all the necessary biologically active substances.It was from the food to the mother and the fetus receives the energy necessary to maintain their livelihoods.Therefore, the power of women should be varied, well-balanced and rational.
Digestion fetus during pregnancy
main nutrients go directly into the bloodstream of the fetus from the mother's blood through a special temporary authority - the placenta.Nevertheless, the work of the digestive tract and in fetal also quite active.The digestive tract of the child begins to operate between the 16th and 20th weeks of fetal development.At this time, there is a well-developed swallowing reflex, the salivary glands contains the digestive enzyme amylase (breaks down carbohydrates) in the stomach - pepsinogen (breaks down proteins).In the 18th week in the small intestine is determined by secretin, after 20 th week begins the secretion of trypsinogen.
established that a normal fetus swallows large amounts of amniotic (amniotic) fluid.Ingested amniotic fluid penetrating through the stomach into the intestines and exposed to suction and the individual components are pre-hydrolyze (decompose).Moreover, in the digestive tract of the fetus also digested products coming into it from the blood.Only a portion of the contents of the stomach and intestines is not subjected to digestion and absorption, and forms a feces (meconium).During the first six months of pregnancy amniotic fluid contains 6 - 18 g / L protein and later - 2 - 3 g / l.The concentration of glucose Glucose: a source of energy 10 - 11th week of pregnancy - 0.54 g / l, 14 - 15th - 0.40 g / l, 35 - 40th - 022 g / l.
If we consider that during the day the fetus swallows about 450 ml of amniotic fluid, the daily content of protein, entering the digestive tract, is about 1 g protein that is the amniotic fluid to the fetus is an important means of power.
advice on nutrition
Proper nutrition during pregnancy is important for the health of women and the normal development of the fetus.In the first half of pregnancy, a special diet is not required.Food should be diverse and delicious cooking.Power in the second half of pregnancy should take into account the physiological needs of the body.The number of proteins - 100 - 120 g per day.Of the products that contain complete proteins, recommended dairy products (yogurt, fermented baked milk, etc.), milk (if a woman carries it well), cottage cheese, eggs, cheese, lean meat (100 - 120 grams per day), fish (150- 250 g per day).
amount of carbohydrates should be less than 500 grams per day.Recommended vegetables, fruits, berries, and wholemeal bread (a source of fiber and B vitamins).Fats recommended 100 - 110 g per day, preferably in the form of butter, cream and vegetable oils.
amount of liquid is limited to 1 - 1.2 liters per day.The amount of salt is also limited, particularly in the second half of pregnancy (8 - 5 grams per day).
During pregnancy, increases the body's need for vitamins.A good source of vitamin A are liver and kidneys of animals, milk, eggs, butter, carrots, fish oil Fish oil - so he thought to be useful? , spinach.Vitamin B1 rich brewer's yeast Brewer's yeast and their therapeutic properties: an indispensable source of vitamins , liver, kidneys, cereals and legumes.The daily dose of vitamin B1 - 10 - 20 mg.The daily requirement for vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is equal to 2 mg.Vitamin PP lot of yeast, meat, liver, wheat, the daily need for this vitamin - 15 mg.Of vitamin C per day is required 1.0 - 1.5 g Vitamin C is found in vegetables, fruits, berries.Vitamin E rich portion wheat germ and corn, eggs, liver, soybean oil, vitamin D - fish oil, liver, eggs, butter.
Pregnant four recommended five meals: first breakfast should contain 25% diet, lunch - 10 - 15%, dinner - 40%, mid-morning snack - 10%, dinner - 15 - 20%.Food is better to cook, stew or steamed.
winter and spring are encouraged to nominate pregnant vitamin - mineral complexes, designed specifically for pregnant women.
What threatens the wrong food the mother and child
It is known that proteins from food, go to form tissues of mother and child, carbohydrates - for energy production, providing all the vital processes of the mother and child (metabolism,breathing, heartbeat, and so on), and during operation of the day, fat - for proper metabolism, vitamins and minerals - for the formation of biologically active substances in small quantities that are necessary for the proper functioning of the body of the child and mother (enzymes, hormones, and so forth).
If the food is not enough of these components, it is threatening the child:
- intrauterine growth retardation, up to his death;
- impaired fetal immunity with the formation of intrauterine infection;
- violation of formation and functioning of the brain (encephalopathy), which in the future may result in mental retardation Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped or increased nervous excitability of the child.
Eating disorders can threaten the mother:
- late toxemia of pregnancy (preeclampsia);
- miscarriages and premature births;
- premature detachment of the placenta;
- iron deficiency anemia;
- impaired immunity, and the addition of infections;
- weakness of labor activity - disrupted the muscles of the uterus because of a shortage of protein and complex carbohydrates;
- svertyvemosti decrease in blood - broken formation of blood components affecting its clotting, threatening bleeding during childbirth.
Proper nutrition during pregnancy - is the basis of maternal and child health.