Plague - whether justified reputation of the "black death"?
Plague is a particularly dangerous infections, once the plague died out whole cities.Neither disease has not had such a tragic impact on the state of the world, like the plague, because of which several times came to a complete standstill culture of Europe.Chronicle of a plague - this is one of the darkest books in the history of our civilization.
history of pandemics
Plague - is a serious infectious disease that manifests severe intoxication, skin, lymph nodes, lungs and other organs.It belongs to the oldest infectious diseases devastating epidemic which causes great damage to the whole of humanity.Plague bacterium causes a small, open at the end of the XIX century.
first mention of the devastating plague in the territory of modern Libya, Egypt and Syria belongs to the III century BCA little later there was a plague in China.A first known pandemic (pandemic - an epidemic that gripped the entire world) occurred in the VI century and entered history as the "Plague of Justinian."Pandemic began in Egypt, spread throughout the Byzantine Empire and took over fifty years, about 100 million. Lives.
second plague pandemic called the "Black Death."It originated in the fourteenth century in Asia and trade routes penetrated into Europe and then through Pskov has been brought to Russia.During the second pandemic killed about 50 million. People.During the pandemic, the first time in Venice was introduced quarantine as a means to prevent introduction of infection.
in XV - XVIII centuries, the plague appeared in many countries of the world, including in Russia, but a pandemic, they no longer had.
third plague pandemic began in 1894 in Hong Kong and trade routes spread to port cities around the world.In Russia, of plague were registered in Odessa at the beginning of the last century.A feature of the third pandemic was that it rarely penetrated inland and occurs mainly in the bubonic form.At the beginning of the last century, it marked as two plague in Manchuria.
natural foci of plague
features of the plague is that the world has its permanent natural foci.These pockets are on the Eurasian, African and American continents.In Russia there are natural foci of plague in the Chita Region, Tuva, in the Altai Mountains in the Republic of Kalmykia, Volgograd and Astrakhan regions.Many permanent natural foci of plague is on the southern borders of our country in Mongolia and China.
supports saving plague pathogen in natural rodent (more than two hundred species), plague is transmitted from rodent to rodent fleas.That flea determine the geographic location of natural foci, since at low temperature they do not survive.On the territory of our country are the main carriers of plague tarbagany, gray and red marmots, great gerbil, ground squirrel and other small.Secondary carriers (ie not permanent) are house mice, common vole and others.
Forms and methods of infection
plague can occur in different forms.The form of the disease may be local (skin, bubonic, cutaneous bubonic), externally-disseminated the spread of infectious agents outside (primary pulmonary, secondary pulmonary, bowel), internally disseminated the spread of infection within the body (primary and secondary-septicseptic).
diseases of people on the territory of natural foci of plague are of seasonal nature and depend mainly on the time of the confluence of rodents into hibernation.The natural foci of people get bubonic plague Bubonic plague - the least contagious , that only in rare cases is complicated by pulmonary.Bubonic plague in the absence of fleas is almost not transmitted from person to person.Isolation of pathogen into the environment occurs only after opening the bubo.
beginning of the epidemic of bubonic plague associated with epizootic (disease while a large number of animals) among rodents.At the beginning of the epidemic there is a small number of fleas that can infect humans.The increased incidence of people go along with the increasing number of dead rodents and the increasing number of fleas infected with the plague.Extinction of epidemics due to the fact that the reduced number of rodents, and together with them and killed a flea.
Flash pneumonic plague begin with, the bubonic plague, giving a complication of the lungs and then the person is infectious to others or he develops a primary pulmonary form of plague.This form of plague is spreading rapidly through airborne droplets.From pneumonic plague Pneumonic plague - infected instant killed entire families, infected people visiting the sick, and so spreads the infection.
How is the fight against the plague
There are preventive and control measures to combat the plague.Preventive measures are carried out in two main areas: surveillance of natural foci of plague and preventing possible importation of plague from other countries.
Epidemiology held in identifying patients with plague.About the disease is reported immediately by telephone to the higher authorities who organize a special commission to combat the plague.At the same time measures are being taken to contain the outbreak.To do this, identify and hospitalize all patients, as well as all persons exposed to them or to their belongings.
plague - it's scary, and not yet fully conquered the infection.