Glaucoma in children - may be primary and secondary
Glaucoma in children is most often the primary or innate.But it can be a consequence of some other eye diseases or general, that is secondary.All kinds of children's glaucoma often subject to surgical treatment, which should be carried out in a timely manner - the only way to save the child vision.
Primary glaucoma in children
Primary glaucoma in children is congenital in nature.At the same time it can be hereditary, and develop as a result of the adverse effects on the organs of vision in utero.It can be various viral infections (especially dangerous rubella), intoxications (smoking, alcohol abuse, a reception of various drugs in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, the effects of radiation and so on).
As a result of all these reasons, the child is formed anomaly of the eye, causing a violation of the outflow of intraocular fluid.Fluid accumulates slowly in the front chamber of the eye, causing an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), which in turn leads to a stretching of eyes, increase the size of the eyeball, and the expansion of the optic fissure, corneal edema.
under high IOP varies the iris (some of its tissue may die out even partially) that leads to expansion and sometimes change in shape of the pupils which thus react to light sluggish.Significant changes may occur in the lens - increased IOP leads to stretching of the ligaments that hold it, they tear, subluxation or dislocation Dislocation - prevention and treatment lens, disruption of metabolic processes in it, and the formation of cataracts.
Constant pressure on the optic nerve head resulting in its rapid atrophy and formation of complete blindness.
first manifestations of children's primary glaucoma are photophobia, lacrimation, slezostoyanie eyes.
The sooner the first signs of glaucoma Glaucoma - signs of onset of the disease, advanced and far advanced glaucoma , the harder runs its course.In older children stretching of the cornea and the sclera in glaucoma leads to significant violations of refraction - formation of nearsightedness or farsightedness.Since glaucoma usually manifests itself in varying degrees in the right and left eye, such changes may cause strabismus.
Secondary glaucoma in children
Children glaucoma may be secondary.It can develop, for example, after cataract surgery cataract surgery - surgery (afakicheskaya glaucoma), and glaucoma may not appear immediately, but after a few years after the operation.To explain the mechanism of glaucoma in this case is not always possible.But in most cases, after the surgery takes place the proliferation of adhesions in the corner of the front chamber of the eye.Afaktichekaya glaucoma is difficult to treat and often leads to blindness.
children Secondary glaucoma can develop as in severe retinopathy of prematurity, with significant damage to the retina.The mechanism of this glaucoma is associated with exposure to the eye tissue of many factors, which leads to a violation of the outflow of intraocular fluid and increase in IOP with all its consequences.
Sometimes the child has a congenital abnormality of the lens.Typically, a small spherical lens that often moves anteriorly.That violates the outflow of intraocular fluid and causes the formation of glaucoma.
In adolescence, secondary glaucoma Glaucoma - a perspective possible blindness may be due to juvenile ksantogranulemy - intraocular benign tumor.Glaucoma is thus a consequence of compression of blood vessels and bleeding.Just as in adults, children glaucoma can develop for inflammatory eye diseases, injuries eyeball degenerative processes.
diagnosis and treatment of childhood glaucoma
Manifestations of secondary glaucoma in children are the same as in adults, but in children with visual impairment are formed quickly, so the detection of glaucoma in its early stages at this age is especially important.
When diagnosing children's glaucoma doctors faced with certain difficulties, as many research methods can not be used in children in a clinic.In this case the baby is hospitalized, and all the necessary diagnostic procedures are performed under anesthesia.
treatment of childhood glaucoma in most cases surgery - to delay the payment of IOP using conservative treatment often inappropriate and even dangerous.
However, drug treatment of glaucoma in children successfully used in preparation for the operation to align the IOP in a rehabilitation treatment after surgery.
Surgical treatment of child glaucoma and choose the type of surgery depends on the identified congenital or acquired disorders of intraocular fluid.