Meningitis in children - a dangerous disease
- meningitis in children - a dangerous disease Meningococcal disease
Meningitis is more common in children than in adults.This is due to a wider spread of communicable diseases among them, the increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (mechanism, warning ingress of harmful substances into the brain from the bloodstream), and imperfections immunity.
Children meningitis - Causes
cause of childhood meningitis is most often enterovirus infection - Coxsackie virus and ECHO.These infectious agents cause serous meningitis serous meningitis - a consequence of serious infection , which is spreading rapidly in the children's collective, as the droplets (coughing, sneezing) and contact (via contaminated faeces hands and objects) by.
The disease is more common in summer and autumn, has a tendency to spread, quite often there are outbreaks of viral meningitis.Meningitis in kindergarten in most cases it has such an origin.Moreover, the cause may be viral meningitis mumps virus.These types of meningitis are more common in children of preschool and primary school age attending children's groups and do not have sufficient immunity.
In newborns and infants viral meningitis are rare, they found a bowl of purulent meningitis of bacterial origin. purulent meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges infants often occurs on the background of the birth trauma and sepsis.A particularly dangerous meningitis in premature - children less adapted to extrauterine life.In most cases, the causative agent of infection in this case are the hemolytic streptococcus and E. coli.But in neonatal units (including resuscitation) pathogen infection often staphylococci, Klebsiella and fungi genus Candida.
In young children most often develop secondary purulent meningitis in sepsis of various origins.In older children and adolescents it is often a complication of meningitis purulent diseases of the ear or sinuses.
tuberculous meningitis, which used to occur in children often enough, today a rarity.During the warmer months are possible outbreak of amoebic meningitis and meningoencephalitis, which is caused by protozoa - amoebas Limaks (nigleriyami) iakantamebami.Infection with amoeba associated with swimming in lakes, ponds, outdoor and indoor swimming pools.Common diseases in the form of individual cases and small outbreaks in the summer.
incubation period of meningitis in children may be different depending on the type of meningitis.
meningitis in newborns
meningitis in newborns - a phenomenon not uncommon.Most often it occurs in the presence of infections urinary organs in the mother - child becomes infected during birth or in utero.This contributes to a long dry period (more than 2 hours) during delivery, prematurity, developmental delay fetus as a result of placental insufficiency placental insufficiency - a deviation from the norm , immaturity of all organs and systems, especially the central nervous system, insufficientoxygen supply of the fetus during pregnancy and birth asphyxia (suffocation) during delivery, birth trauma, birth defects and so on.
Not least in the development of meningitis is the state of immunity of the newborn.Intrauterine meningitis usually occur in the first two - three days after birth, postnatal (if infection occurred after childbirth) meningitis appear later, usually in the third week of life, when there is a decrease content of immunoglobulin G, derived from the mother, in the serum of the newborn.IgG - it's different kinds of antibodies to infectious agents, which previously met the mother.
penetration of bacterial infection in the blood, and then to the brain and spinal cord contribute to the inflammatory changes in the nasal mucosa of acute respiratory viral infection, which "paves the way" a bacterial infection.
symptoms of meningitis in infants is not so easy to identify.Therefore, any atypical behavior of the child, especially newborn or received birth trauma, should alert parents.It is, first of all, the rejection of the chest, weakness, drowsiness, and sometimes, on the contrary, over-excited child.The child is not given just to touch himself, comes a cry from any touch.This is due to increased skin sensitivity characteristic of meningitis.
Children of this age are very difficult to detect signs of meningeal syndrome, especially at the beginning of the disease.This is due to the fact that in normal newborns retained increased muscle tone, which passes only a few weeks after birth.A feature of meningitis in infants is also the frequent absence of temperature increase - this is due to the imperfection of thermoregulation.
In the later stages of the disease the child may appear convulsions, cerebral edema, toxic shock and other life-threatening symptoms.It is therefore very important in early treatment - only this can prevent the development of serious complications with subsequent death or total disability of the child.The consequences of meningitis in children of this age can be in the form of hydrocephalus (water on the brain), total blindness or deafness, various types of paresis and paralysis, epilepsy, a delay of mental development up to mental retardation and so on.
meningitis in children under one year
meningitis in infants under one year often has a bacterial origin and is a complication of some other infections.Including a predisposing factor for acute respiratory infections (ARI), which weaken the body of the child and contribute to the development of bacterial complications.It is also serous meningitis as a complication of enterovirus infection Enterovirus infection - whether it is the danger? and fungal meningitis (caused mainly by fungi genus Candida) - the last more likely to develop in frail sickly children.
How does meningitis in children under one year?Meningitis in infants is not always the typical symptoms.The temperature at this age can significantly rise or may not rise at all.In any case, parents should be alert sudden lethargy or excessive excitation of the Child, which appeared on the background of a disease (such as SARS) while refusing food and drink.
child who begins meningitis, shudders and comes a cry from any touch from bright light, loud sound.At the same time he can appear repeated vomiting.In this case it is better not to wait for further developments, and call an ambulance.
Later excitation can be replaced by apathy, change in consciousness, which quickly turns into a coma.But the excitement may, on the contrary, to grow, the child begins cramping turning into status epilepticus (persistent seizures).
muscle tone in an infant with meningitis is usually reduced, while the tendon reflexes (muscle contraction in response to stimulation of a tendon) raised and often are not the same on different sides.Most affected cranial nerves, mainly oculomotor and facial nerves, which manifests itself in facial asymmetry, and strabismus.Large fontanelle bulging at the child as a result of cerebral edema.For a sharp rise in intracranial pressure is characterized by the so-called gidrotsefalichesky scream - the baby unconscious screams and grabs his hands behind his head.
A child growing intoxication, which causes a severe disturbance of the general condition of: violations of water-salt metabolism, blood circulation in the capillaries, hormonal disorders.
most important meningitis in infants - it is time to deliver the child to the hospital.First aid, such a child would be a lumbar puncture - puncture membranes of the spinal cord and the removal of the cerebrospinal fluid that lead to a reduction in intracranial pressure in the improvement of the child.