Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - to help fidget?
Attention Deficit Disorder - disorders that are reflected in its name.People with attention deficit disorder (ADD) have problems with concentration and retaining attention, which causes difficulty in learning, work and other spheres of life.
Symptoms of ADD in children and adolescents
In children and adolescents with ADD the following symptoms:
- ability to retain concentration for very brief periods of time;
- Forgetfulness and distraction - kids often lose things, forget to do your homework, and so on;
- Failure to listen carefully and follow the instructions;
- constant change of activity - children are often and easily distracted;
- problems with the organization of time.
children suffering from ADD, are particularly difficult to concentrate on tasks that require a lot of effort and time, and the reason is not laziness.Such children may also be hyperactive (they often fight, a lot of talking, can not sit still - especially in the peaceful and quiet environment) and impulsive (commit rash acts, interrupt others when they want to say something, have blunted sensedanger).
Symptoms of ADD in adults
In adults, symptoms of this disorder are much less pronounced than in children.The problem of attention deficit disorder in adults is still very poorly understood.It is still unclear even whether ADD occur in the adult, if in childhood he had no evidence of that breach.On the other hand, it is known that people who have a child suffering from ADD, its symptoms often persist into adulthood.It is estimated that in 25 years a quarter of all patients have symptoms of ADD, which were in their childhood;65% of the patients retained symptoms that continue to influence everyday life.A specific list of symptoms of ADD in adults has not yet been compiled, but generally doctors believe that with this disorder in adults are associated the following symptoms:
- negligence and lack of attention to detail;
- patient constantly takes up new businesses without finishing old;
- Poor organizational skills;
- Inability to focus or prioritize cases;
- man often loses things, or every time puts them in different places;
- mood swings;
- extreme impatience.
Adults with ADD often engaged in dangerous sports, often little to worry about their own safety.
both children and adults, ADD can be combined with other violations, among them - bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood , and so on.
Causes The exact cause of ADD is unknown.It is expected that this violation is developing under the influence of several factors:
ADD often observed in families and is expected, though not proven, that the predisposition to the development of this syndrome is caused by heredity.The children, parents and siblings suffer from ADD, the likelihood of developing this disorder is 4-5 times higher than the average.
- Features of functioning brain
neurotransmitters in people with ADD do not function exactly as those who do not suffer from this disorder.In addition, in such patients brain regions responsible for control and attention to be less active than most people.According to several studies, the frontal lobe of the brain responsible for decision making in patients with ADD, too, do not work like a perfectly healthy people.It has also been found that in many patients the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine deviate from the norm.
- exposure to toxins during pregnancy
increased probability of ADD in children whose mothers during pregnancy, drinking alcohol.It is believed that smoking and drug use also increases the risk of developing this disorder.
- Other reasons
other possible causes of ADD are premature the birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy), low birth weight and brain injury received in utero or in the first few years of life.
If you suspect that the CDC should be as soon as possible address to the family doctor.The process of diagnosis of ADD is rather complicated and long, but the problems that it brings to the violation of a person's life, in any case, deliver a lot more trouble than walking on doctors.
completely cure ADD impossible, but there are means to alleviate the symptoms and reduce the influence of this disorder on daily life.
The treatment of ADD, the following medications:
The drugs with methylphenidate and dexamphetamine lasts from four to twelve hours (depending on the concentration of active substance).Atomoxetine effect persists for a long time.All of these drugs temporarily improve concentration, make people less impulsive, so it can absorb new information and develop skills acquired in the learning process.
methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and atomoxetine can be used for the treatment of children and adolescents;also approved the use of atomoxetine in the treatment of adult patients who have been diagnosed with ADD in children.So far, no medicine has not received regulatory approval for use in the treatment of patients with ADD have been identified over the age of 20 years.In such cases, the doctor prescribes a treatment based on the characteristics of a particular case, and regularly checks the status of the patient.
Psychotherapy and behavioral therapy
The treatment of ADD medication treatment is usually used in conjunction with psychotherapy and behavioral therapy.In the course of psychotherapy to patients - both children and adults - explains in detail the impact on their lives will have a diagnosis of ADD, help to understand the peculiarities of her illness, and learn to live with it.Behavioral therapy can be directed not only to the patients themselves, but on their parents.As a result of treatment, the patient will begin to better control their behavior, and his parents will learn how to properly communicate with your child, taking into account its features.Parents can also go through special training programs to help them better understand the illness of their child, and at the same time - to communicate with their parents, who also raising children with ADD.